# 重要的定义及知识点

# Project 定义

“A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result.”
为创造独特的产品、服务或结果,而付出的暂时努力。

# Core Competency

The key to organizational success
核心竞争力:组织成功的关键

A Core Competency 核心竞争力
Something the organization does amazingly well
该组织在某些事情上表现出色
Very hard for others to reproduce
他人很难复制
Deliverables are valuable to customers
交付的产品对客户而言很有价值

# Project Business Case(PPT 相关的例子)

“A documented economic feasibility study used to establish the validity of the benefits of a” specific effort “that is used as a basis for authorization of further project management activities.”
“有记录的经济可行性研究,用于确定 “特定努力” 所产生的收益的有效性,以此作为进一步项目管理活动授权的基础。”

# PMI 定义

Project Management Institute 项目管理协会

# Project Charter 定义

A document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities. (PMBOK 6th ed., p.715)
由项目发起者或赞助者发布的文件,正式授权项目的存在并为项目经理提供将组织资源应用于项目活动的权限。

# 4 Key Considerations

  • The role of a project manager
    is to successfully balance the four key considerations; Time, Cost, Quality and Scope.
    项目经理的作用是成功平衡四个关键因素:时间,成本,质量和范围。

  • Time, Cost, Quality and Scope 各自的定义

    Cost 成本
    Project Cost Management should consider the effect of project decisions on the subsequent recurring cost of using, maintain, and supporting the product, service or result of the project (p. 233)
    项目成本管理应考虑,项目决策对随后使用、维护和支持产品、服务或项目结果的经常性成本的影响
    Quality 质量
    The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements. (p. 718)
    一组固有特性满足要求的程度。
    To PMI, just meeting requirements as a core success criteria. Modern quality experts establish the expectation customer satisfaction. For example, and according to Juran, meeting expectations regarding fitness of use is the definition of quality.
    对于 PMI,仅将满足要求作为核心成功标准即可。现代质量专家建立了对客户满意的期望。例如,据 Juran 所说,满足有关使用适用性的期望,是质量的定义。
    Scope 范围
    The sum of the products, services, and results to be provided as a project. (p. 722)
    作为项目提供的产品,服务和结果的总和。
    Time 时间
    A limited period or interval, as between two successive events. Dictionary.com – 4th definition
    如两个连续事件之间的,有限的时间段或间隔。

# Stakeholder 定义

“…an individual, or group, or organization that may affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of a project…”
“…… 可能会受项目的决定、活动或结果,影响、被影响或认为自己受其影响的,个人、团体或组织……”

# SMART + Lexicon Use Example

Specific
A specific goal is a goal that has a bit of depth to it. It isn’t saying “I want to go to culinary school”, it’s saying “I want to graduate from The Culinary Institute of America in their baking program”. Specificity is important so that you know exactly what needs to be done in order for the goal to be deemed a success.
一个特定的目标是有一定深度的目标。这并不是说 “我想去烹饪学校”,而是 “我想从美国烹饪学院的烘烤计划中毕业”。特异性很重要,因为这样您可以确切地知道需要做什么才能使目标成功。
Measurable
A measurable goal is one that is based on some sort of metric. Instead of saying “I want to have good knife skills”, a measurable goal would be: “I want to be able to finely and evenly dice 5 onions per minute.”
可衡量的目标是基于某种度量标准的目标。一个可衡量的目标不是说 “我想拥有良好的刀技能”,而是:“我希望能够每分钟细细均匀地切成 5 个洋葱。”
Achievable
A goal that is attainable is a goal that you can accomplish. People have a tendency to get over-zealous with their goals when they are excited and passionate. However, setting goals that you will not be able to accomplish doesn’t make sense for anyone. It’s more important to be realistic than too aspirational here. Break down larger goals into pieces if you need to, in order to accomplish them. For example: if your big goal is to open a restaurant, but you aren’t very good at cooking yet, a smaller and more attainable goal would be to learn to cook well, or even learn to cook a few things well. As you attain certain goals and get better at something, new goals may become attainable.
可达到的目标就是你可以实现的目标。当人们充满激情和激情时,他们倾向于对目标过度热情。但是,设定一个任何人都无法实现的目标是没有意义的。在这里,现实主义比追求梦想更重要。如果需要,可以将较大的目标分解为多个部分,以实现它们。例如:如果您的主要目标是开一家餐厅,但您还不是很擅长做饭,那么一个较小且可以实现的目标将是学习烹饪,甚至学会烹饪一些东西。当您达到某些目标并在某些方面变得更好时,新的目标可能会实现。
Realistic / Relevant
Relevant goals are goals that help you progress to your dream. If you are trying to reach culinary stardom at any cost, it doesn’t make sense to waste your precious time learning to be an awesome mechanic. Sure, it might be super useful to you personally, but in this case, it doesn’t help you reach your dream or goals.
相关的目标是可以帮助您实现梦想的目标。如果您想不惜一切代价想争取美食家的认可,却浪费您宝贵的时间来学习成为一名出色的机械师。当然,这对您个人可能很有用,但在这种情况下,它并不能帮助您实现梦想或目标。
Time bound
The best goals are also time bound. Adding this constraint is important so that you are able to keep yourself accountable. Setting goals is sort of like creating a to-do list. You have on your list what you want to do today, what you want to do tomorrow, etc. With goals you may have daily goals, monthly goals, yearly goals, etc. Be very specific with the dates you choose, and make sure that you would also be able to complete the goal without unreasonable stress.
最好的目标也是有时间限制的。添加此约束很重要,这样您就可以对自己负责。设定目标有点像创建待办事项列表。您的清单上有今天要做什么,明天要做什么等等。有了目标,您可能会有每日目标,每月目标,年度目标等。请对选择的日期非常明确,并确保您也可以在没有不合理压力的情况下完成目标。

# goals:

  • Metrics are just a way to measure
    指标只是一种衡量方法
  • Goals need to be flexible to allow for unique situations
    目标必须灵活,以适应特殊情况
  • SMART goals are needed to make metrics meaningful
    需要 SMART 目标,以使指标有意义
  • Goals provide context for metrics
    目标为指标提供了背景

# WBS(Work Breakdown Structure)

  • 定义:
    “A hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables.” (PMBOK 6th Ed. P. 726)
    项目团队要执行的总工作范围的分层分解,以完成项目目标并创建所需的可交付成果。
  • 重要性:
    • Documents what needs to get done.
      记录需要完成的工作。
    • Organizes work.
      组织工作。
    • Great tool to show people what you have in mind.
      伟大的工具,向人们展示你的想法。
  • WBS 如何使用
    例子: Barn construction
  • WBS Summary 总结
    • 责任矩阵
    • 进度构建
    • 基于评估
    • 其他

# Communications from PMBOK (BRV) v15"

# communication plan

“…the process of developing an appropriate approach and plan for project communications activities based on the information needs of each stakeholder or group, available organizational assets, and the needs of the project.”
“…… 根据每个利益相关者或群体的信息需求,可用的组织资产以及项目的需求,为项目交流活动制定适当的方法和计划的过程。”

# communication methods

  • Interactive (e.g. real time face-to-face one-on-one conversation)
    互动式(例如即时面对面的一对一对话)
  • Push (like an e-mail that is sent out that no one can reply to)
    推送(就像没有人可以回复的已发送电子邮件一样)
  • Pull (like e-learning)
    拉取(像在线学习一样)

# Project Communications Management

“….includes the processes necessary to ensure that the information needs of the project and its stakeholders are met through development of artifacts and implementation of activities designed to achieve effective information exchange.”
“…… 包括必要的过程,以确保通过开发工件和实施旨在实现有效信息交换的活动来满足项目及其利益相关者的信息需求。”

Communication plans need to be updated as appropriate.
沟通计划需要适当更新。

# “What’s In It For Me” (A.K.A., WIIFM)

“对我有什么好处”(又名 WIIFM)

You are making an attempt to tell the receiver of your message why the communication is important from their perspective.
您正在尝试告诉您的消息接收者,为什么从他们的角度讲交流很重要。

The idea is that by having people understand why it is important to them, they are more likely to take the action you want them to take.
这个想法是通过让人们理解为什么对他们如此重要,他们更有可能采取您希望他们采取的行动。

# 定义

Reciprocity 回馈
Give a little something to get a little something in return. The idea of reciprocity  says that people, by nature, feel obliged to provide discounts or concessions to others if they’ve received favors from those same people.
例子:中国人求人办事都会送一些礼物,被赠予者往往会更加重视;再如,同事 A 帮了同事 B 的忙,同事 B 请同事 A 吃饭,作为感谢
Consistency 一致性
Someone who is consistent always behaves in the same way, has the same attitudes towards people or things, or achieves the same level of success in something. He was never the most consistent of players anyway.
利用了人们的从众心理,在群体中更容易被人们影响。
Authority 权威性
Accessories, such as job titles (e.g. Dr.) and uniforms, infuse an air of authority, making the average person more likely to accept what that person says.
比如,在广告中,用专家来做广告宣传。
Tracability 可追溯性
You are making an attempt to tell the receiver of your message why the communication is important from their perspective.  The idea is that by having people understand why it is important to them, they are more likely to take the action you want them to take.
让人们理解原因和根源。

# Metrics

Metrics based goals

SMART Goals assign meaning to metrics. You can then know if you are on target, and if not, your metrics will indicate that (based on your goal), and can then assist you to understanding if you are getting better as you try to improve.
SMART 目标为指标分配含义。然后,您可以知道自己是否达到了目标,如果没有达到目标,则指标将表明目标(基于目标),然后可以帮助您了解自己在尝试改进时是否有所好转。

Main Idea…
…“If you can measure it, you can manage it.” Source of quote: Anonymous
“如果可以对其进行衡量,就可以对其进行管理。”

# Collect Requirements (p. 138)

  • 定义
    “… the process determining, documenting, managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet (project) objectives…(it provides) the basis for defining product scope and project scope.”
    “…… 确定,记录,管理利益相关者的需求和要求的过程,以满足(项目)目标……(它提供)定义产品范围和项目范围的基础。”

  • Some Inputs to Requirements (p. 141)

    • Project charter 项目章程
    • Assumptions log 假设记录
    • Expert judgement 专家的判断
    • Brain storming 头脑风暴
    • Interviewing stakeholders 利益相关者访谈
    • Focus groups 专门小组
    • Surveys 调查
    • Benchmarking to best practices 最佳实践基准

# Autocratic

定义
独裁,单人决定

# Integration Project Management

# 定义、主要观点、关键的概念、趋势

  • 定义:
    Integration Project Management is…
    ”…the processes and activities to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate” various Project Management activities.” (p.69)
    确定、定义、合并、统一和协调各种项目管理活动的流程和活动

  • Main ideas…

    • Resource allocations
      资源分配
    • Balancing competing needs
      平衡竞争需求
    • Examining any alternatives
      检查其他选择
    • Tailoring
      定制
    • Managing cross area dependencies
      管理跨区域依赖性
  • Key concepts (p.72) 关键概念

    • Coordinate deliverables
      协调可交付成果
    • Develop project plan
      制定项目计划
    • Ensuring the right resources are accessible to the team.
      确保团队可以访问正确的资源。
    • Monitor and control to keep project plan viable
      进行监控以确保项目计划的可行性
    • Oversee changes to project plan
      监督项目计划的变更
    • Keep the project on track
      保持项目进度
    • Communicating with stakeholders (especially actual project vs. expected)
      与利益相关者沟通(尤其是实际项目与预期项目)
  • Emergent Changes (p.73) 紧急变更

    • Automated tools (MS Project, Jira, etc.)
      自动化工具(MS Project,Jira 等)
    • Expanding roles of the PM
      PM 的扩展作用
    • Agile + PM = Hybrid
      敏捷 + PM = 混合

# Develop Project Charter

“…the process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organization resources to project activities.” (p. 75)
“… 制定文档的过程,该文档正式授权项目的存在,并为项目经理提供将组织资源应用于项目活动的权限。”
Usually internally initiated, and written by the PM.
通常由内部发起,由 PM 编写

注意教授对 Work 的定义
A contract for going outside the company or organization.
公司或组织之外的合同。

# Business case

  • main points
    • Idea
      理念
    • Cost justification (NPV)
      成本合理
    • Due date
      截止日期
  • considerations
    • Market demand
      市场需求
    • Organizational need
      组织需求
    • Customer request
      顾客要求
    • Technology advancements
      技术进步
    • Legal requirements
      法律要求
    • Ecological/social impacts
      生态 / 社会影响
  • Interpersonal Team Skills
    Meeting management
    会议管理
    • PAL(Purpose, Agenda, Length)
      目的,议程,长度
    • Start on time
      准时开始
    • Minutes
      分钟
    • Action Items/Follow Up
      动作项目 / 跟进

# Develop Project Management plan 项目管理计划

Friendly Reminder:
友情提醒:
The Project Plan identifies how the project is to be: (P.83)
项目计划确定了项目的目标:

  • Executed 已执行
  • Monitored and controlled 监视与控制
  • Closed 关闭

# Direct and Manage Project work 管理项目的工作

(p.90)

Direct and Manage Project Work is the process of leading and performing the work defined in the project management plan and implementing approved changes to achieve the project’s objectives.
指导和管理项目工作是,领导和执行项目管理计划中定义的工作,以及,实施已批准的更改,以实现项目目标的过程。

The key benefit provides overall management of the project work deliverables, and thus improves the probability of project success.
主要好处是对项目工作的可交付成果进行全面管理,从而提高了项目成功的可能性。

Involves… 包括

  • Planned project activities to complete project deliverables
    计划的项目活动以完成项目可交付成果
  • Accomplish established objectives
    完成既定目标

(p. 92)

The Project Manager directs the performance of the planned project activities and manages the various technical and organizational interfaces and through monitor-and-control, applies the necessary guidance to ensure the project remains on track.
项目经理指导执行计划好的项目活动,并管理各种技术和组织接口,并通过监视和控制,应用必要的指导,以确保项目步入正轨。

# 项目管理学(project management)中的 scope

定义:scope 即是一个项目的边界,做一个产品或者项目要清楚产品的边界是什么。

哪些是可以做的,哪些不可以做的,可以做哪些,做到什么程度。都要清晰规划,避免项目实施过程中的范围蔓延。在甲方需求蔓延的情况下,要控制好范围。在敏捷开发中,不同阶段的产品边界也要划分清楚。边界清晰,避免项目中镀金行为。

界定:产品、服务、结果

  • baseline 底线
    “The approved version of a work product that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results.”
    “工作产品的批准版本只能通过正式的变更控制程序进行更改,并且可以用作与实际结果进行比较的基础。”

  • Scope: Predictive VS scrum
    “In a predictive life cycle, project deliverables are (specifically) identified at the beginning of the project, and any changes to the scope are progressively managed.”
    “在可预测的生命周期中,(具体地)在项目开始时就确定了项目可交付成果,并且对范围的任何更改都将得到逐步管理。”

    Change from original scope is not appreciated as a scope change requires all documentation relevant to the change to be updated, action needs to be taken to understand the proposed change, and it is very difficult to get stakeholders to look at and approve scope changes
    对原始范围的更改不被赞赏,因为范围更改要求与更改相关的所有文档都需要更新,需要采取措施来理解建议的更改,并且很难让利益相关者查看和批准范围变化

# Closeout procedures 结算程序

The closeout process is a process to finish or resolve all contractual requirements for a physically complete contract.
结算过程是完成或解决物理上完整合同的所有合同要求的过程。
是一个过程,以完成或解决所有的合同要求。

Closeout is completed when all administrative actions have been completed, all disputes settled, and final payment has been made.
完成所有行政措施,解决所有争端并已完成最后付款后,清算才算完成。

# project stakeholder

According to the Project Management Institute (PMI), the term project stakeholder refers to, "an individual, group, or organization, who may affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of a project.
可能影响、被某项决定、活动或项目结果影响或认为自己受到影响的个人、团体或组织."

ISO 21500 uses a similar definition.Project stakeholders are entities that have an interest in a given project. These stakeholders may be inside or outside an organization which:sponsor a project, orhave an interest or a gain upon a successful completion of a project;may have a positive or negative influence in the project completion.
ISO 21500 使用类似的定义。项目利益相关者是对给定项目感兴趣的实体。这些利益相关者可能在组织的内部或外部:一个项目的发起人,或者在成功完成一个项目时有利益或收获;可能对项目的完成产生正面或负面的影响。

什么是项目干系人(project stakeholder)?
stakeholder 理论起源于企业管理领域,最早由斯坦福大学在 20 世纪 60 年代提出,到 20 世纪年代 80 年代逐步发展完善,成为公司治理和权益保护的理论依据。美国经济学家弗里曼给出的 stakeholder 定义如下:能够影响一个组织目标实现的个人或者组织,或者能够被组织目标实现影响的个人或组织,这个定义逐渐为大家所认可。

project stakeholder 是 stakeholder 理论在项目管理上的应用,PMBOK:
Persons and orgnizations such as customers, sponsors, performing organization and the public, that are actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected by execution or completion of the project. They may also expert influence over the project and its deliverables.

积极参与项目,以及其利益受项目的执行和结束积极影响或消极影响的个人或者组织,例如客户、赞助商、执行机构和公众;他们可以对项目及其工作产品施加影响。

# TED 视频复习

  1. How great leaders inspire action by Simon Sinek

  2. How to turn a group of strangers into a team

# 阅读材料:《高效能人士的七个习惯》

  1. 积极主动

    • 行事的态度
    • 对自己的人生负责
    • 主动创造有利环境(非外界因素控制)
  2. 以终为始
    先构思、再实践

  3. 要事第一,priority
    主要要学会掌握时间管理矩阵,也就是我们常说的紧急重要四象限。另外,我们要意识自己在个人和社会中所扮演的角色, 然后写下每个角色本周的对应任务,勾选出每个角色你认为重要的事情,并尽一切可能保证它们与你的人生目标方向一致,然后优先完成它们。

  4. 双赢思维,自己 + 他人
    双赢的过程,并不是简单地 1+1>2,它需要双方都从中努力。做到双赢,就应该既要顾及他人利益,同时也需要坚持自己的原则,不轻易退缩,最终实现令彼此都满意的成果。

  5. 知彼解己
    这一章节教我们如何有效地沟通,正确有效的沟通实际上始于准确的聆听。聆听按照层次的不同可以分为:充耳不闻、装模作样、选择好接收、聚精会神和移情聆听。我们要尽可能做到移情聆听。移情式聆听,就是需要身为倾听者的我们,代入倾诉者的角色,感同身受地了解对方此番谈话的真正目的。

  6. 统合综效
    统合综效其实是一种心态。用书本中的话讲就是:“如果一位具有相当聪明才智的人跟我意见不同,那么对方的主张必定有我尚未体会的奥妙,值得加以了解。与人合作最重要的是,重视不同个体的不同心理、情绪与智能,以及各人眼中所见到的不同世界。与所见略同的沟通,益处不大,要有分歧才有收获。”

  7. 不断更新
    如果我们希望能够灵活地运用前六个习惯,不断提升和完善自我就显得非常重要了。对此,作者给了送四个层面的建议,分别是关于身体、健康、智力与社会。关于这四个层面的更新,史蒂芬・柯维强调,我们应该平衡好四个层面的更新进度,共同推进。

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