# Content

We're supposed to be stopping rainforest destruction.

Actually, it's getting worse.

More tropical rainforest was lost in 2022 than in 2021.

That's despite governments promising to stop destroying rainforests just two years ago.

In fact, the opposite has happened.

A new study has shown that ten percent more rainforest was cleared in 2022 than in the previous year.

We have deforestation, pristine and pledge.

Let's have a look at our first headline.

This is from the BBC.

Climate Change: Deforestation surges despite pledges.

So this story is all about the loss of tropical rainforests.

And this is increasing — or surging.

Now the word we're looking at here is deforestation.

Yes. This is a great word because it tells us how English works.

The most important part is forest. You can see that in the middle.

But it's the bits around it that give it a precise meaning.

We've got 'de', which we can use to talk about removing things, and we've got 'ation', which we can use to turn a verb into a noun.

So, deforestation is the process of removing forests.

And this is an example that we see a lot in academic and scientific writing where we turn verbs into nouns to talk about processes and this is called nominalisation.

Yes, and there's quite a few that are to do with the climate.

So the process of places becoming deserts is called desertification.

The process of places becoming cities is called urbanisation.

And the process of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere — that's called decarbonisation.

Yes, and learning new words like this can be done through memorisation.

OK, let's look at that again.

... Many animal species are threatened by deforestation...

Let's have our next headline.

This is from the Guardian.

Destruction of world's pristine rainforests soared in 2022 despite Cop 26 pledge.

Again it's about the increase in destruction of rainforests.

It soared in 2022 — that means increased very fast, but we are looking at the word pristine.

Yes, pristine means in his original, perfect condition. Not ruined.

We're talking here about areas of rainforest.

They have not previously been damaged by humans and these are what are now being destroyed.

And we often use the word pristine more generally.

You will see it in the expression in pristine condition.

This is used to describe something that is as good as new.

Yes, when you're selling something, you'll get a lot more money for it if it's in pristine condition.

We could also use it to talk about the way things are looked after, so museums might have lots of old objects that they keep in pristine condition.

That's right. OK, let's look at that again.

... This car's old, but it's in pristine condition...

Let's have a look at our next headline.

This is from Euronews.

World forests continue to shrink despite Cop26 pledge, report says.

Now, this headline uses shrink to talk about rainforests getting smaller, but we are going to focus on the noun pledge.

Now Phil, isn't pledge a bit like a promise?

Yes, it is, and all of these headlines have referred back to the pledges made at the Cop26 summit.

And a pledge is a formal promise.

At the Cop summit, governments promised to stop and even reverse deforestation by 2030 — something that now looks unlikely according to all these articles.

And as you said pledge, is often used in formal or very serious contexts.

So politicians make pledges to voters in campaigns.

People make pledge loyalty to their country, in that case, it's a verb, and couples make pledges to each other when they get married.

Yeah, so it's not the same as a promise to buy your friend dinner or to get somewhere on time. It's a lot more serious than that.

OK, let's look at that again.

... Soldiers made a pledge of loyalty to their country...

We've had deforestation — a loss of forests.

Pristine — in its original condition, not damaged.

Pledge — a formal or serious promise.

Now, if you found this interesting, try this episode on climate change and evolution.

# Key Points

  1. Escalating Rainforest Destruction 雨林破坏不断升级

    • Despite promises made by governments, tropical rainforest loss worsened in 2022 compared to 2021.
      尽管各国政府做出了承诺,但与 2021 年相比,2022 年热带雨林损失更加严重。
    • A new study reveals a 10% increase in rainforest clearing in 2022.
      一项新研究显示,2022 年雨林砍伐量将增加 10%。
  2. Deforestation and its Significance 森林砍伐及其意义

    • The term 'deforestation' refers to the process of removing forests, often used to describe the loss of tropical rainforests.
      “毁林” 一词是指砍伐森林的过程,通常用来描述热带雨林的丧失。
    • Nominalisation, turning verbs into nouns, is common in academic and scientific contexts.
  3. Pristine Rainforests and Destruction 原始雨林和破坏

    • 'Pristine' denotes the original, undamaged condition of rainforests untouched by human activity.
      “原始” 是指未受人类活动影响的原始、未受破坏的雨林状况。
    • The destruction of pristine rainforests is a growing concern, impacting biodiversity and climate.
  4. Climate Pledges and Formal Promises 气候承诺和正式承诺

    • 'Pledge' signifies a formal and serious commitment or promise, often made by governments or individuals in important contexts.
      “承诺” 表示正式而严肃的承诺或承诺,通常由政府或个人在重要场合做出。
    • Climate pledges, like those made at the Cop26 summit, are critical for addressing environmental challenges.

# Vocabulary and Usage

  1. Rainforest loss 雨林丧失

    • The escalating rainforest loss is jeopardizing global biodiversity and contributing to climate change.
  2. Deterioration 恶化

    • Despite efforts, rainforest deterioration continues due to human activities.
  3. Unprecedented degradation 前所未有的退化

    • The unprecedented degradation of rainforests calls for urgent action.
  4. Nominalisation 名词化

    • In academic writing, nominalisation is used to discuss complex processes, such as deforestation.
  5. Environmental devastation 环境破坏

    • The ongoing deforestation leads to environmental devastation with long-lasting consequences.
  6. Biodiversity hotspot 生物多样性热点

    • Pristine rainforests are important biodiversity hotspots, home to numerous unique species.
  7. Undisturbed habitats 未受干扰的栖息地

    • The destruction of undisturbed habitats is a grave concern for conservationists.
  8. Formal commitment 正式承诺

    • Governments must make formal commitments and pledges to tackle deforestation.
  9. Vow 誓言

    • World leaders vowed to address rainforest destruction at the international summit.
  10. Irreversible damage 不可逆转的损害

    • The irreversible damage caused by rainforest destruction poses a threat to our planet's health.

# Sentences

# Speaking

  • The headlines reveal that despite climate pledges, rainforest destruction has intensified, with a 10% increase in clearing.
    头条新闻显示,尽管做出了气候承诺,雨林的破坏仍在加剧,砍伐面积增加了 10%。

  • Pristine rainforests, untouched by human interference, are now facing irreversible damage due to deforestation.

  • World leaders need to turn their climate pledges into actionable plans to prevent further rainforest loss.

# Writting

  • The alarming escalation of rainforest destruction in 2022 contradicts the promises and pledges made by governments to address climate change.
    2022 年雨林破坏的惊人升级与各国政府应对气候变化的承诺和保证相矛盾。

  • Pristine rainforests, vital for biodiversity conservation, are being rapidly destroyed, leading to irreversible ecological consequences.

  • The formal pledge made at the Cop26 summit to halt deforestation requires urgent and effective implementation to avert environmental devastation.