# What is Heuristic Evaluation

启发式评估

  • Performed by an Expert
    由专家进行

  • Steps

    • Inspect UI thoroughly
      彻底检查用户界面
    • Compare UI against heuristics
      启发式地比较用户界面
    • List usability problems
      列出可用性问题
    • Explain and justify each problem with heuristics
      用启发式方法解释并论证每个问题
    • Provide a possible solution to the identified issue
      为已发现的问题提供可能的解决方案
  • Method

    • Expert evaluates the user interface using guidelines
      专家根据准则评估用户界面
    • Usability "inspection" method
      可用性 “检查” 方法
      • Depends on evaluator's judgment
        取决于评估者的判断
    • Is a "discount" usability engineering method
      是 “折扣” 可用性工程方法
      • One case study found factor of 48 in cost/benefit:
        研究发现成本 / 收益比为 48
        • Cost of inspection: $10,500. Benefit: $500,000 (Nielsen, 1994)
          检查费用:$ 10,500。 收益:$ 500,000

# How to do Heuristic Evaluation

如何进行启发式评估

  • Systematic inspection of system
    系统检查
  • Multiple evaluators are better
    多个评估者为佳
  • Trained evaluators are better
    训练有素的评估者为佳
    • 22% vs. 41% vs. 60% of errors found
  • Go through whole interface
    贯穿整个界面
  • Result: list of problems, guidelines violated, and proposed fixes
    结果:问题清单,违反的准则,以及修正建议

# HE is not UT

  • Evaluator is not the user
    评估者不是用户
  • Analogy: Code inspection Vs Testing
    类比:代码检查与测试
  • HE often finds problems that UT misses
    HE 经常发现 UT 遗漏的问题
    • Inconsistent fonts
      字体不一致
    • Size and distance (Fitt's law problems)
      大小和距离(菲特定律问题)
  • But UT is standard for usability
    但是 UT 是可用性的标准

# How many Evaluators 需要几位评估者

Nielsen suggests optimal might be 4

# HE Methodology 方法论

  • Reference: Nielsen's "How to Conduct a Heuristic Evaluation"
    如何进行启发式评估
    • Each evaluator inspects interface separately
      每个评估员分别检查界面
    • OK for designer to answer evaluator's questions
      可以让设计师回答评估者的问题
    • Go through interface several times using heuristics
      使用启发式方法多次浏览界面
    • Can supply evaluators with scenarios of user tasks
      可以为评估人员提供用户任务方案

# Guidelines guide design 准则指导设计

  • Knowing these guidelines should improve your designs
    了解这些准则,可以改善你的设计
  • Take them into account to avoid violating them
    考虑到这些,避免再次违规
  • Also, all the other guidelines
    此外,所有其他准则
    • Guidelines for mobile, international, web etc.
      移动,国际,网络等准则
  • Neilsen evaluated 60 old guidelines (in 2005) and found 90% still valid after 20 years
    2005 年 Neilsen 评估了 60 条旧指南,发现 90%在 20 年后仍然有效
    • Others no longer relevant, only 2 were "wrong"
    • http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20050117.html
    • Similarly with web guidelines: http://www.nngroup.com/articles/usability-guidelines-change/

# 10 Basic Principles 尼尔森十大可用性原则

From Nielsen's web page: http://www.useit.com/papers/heuristic/heuristic_list.html

  1. Visibility of system status
    系统状态的可见性
  2. Match between system and the real world
    系统与现实世界之间的匹配,环境贴切原则
  3. User control and freedom
    用户的控制性和自由度
  4. Consistency and standards
    一致性和标准化
  5. Error prevention
    错误预防
  6. Recognition rather than recall
    识别,而不是记忆
  7. Flexibility and efficiency of use
    灵活性和使用效率
  8. Aesthetic and minimalist design
    美观和简约的设计
  9. Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors
    帮助用户识别,诊断错误,并从错误中恢复
  10. Help and Documentation
    帮助和文档

# 1️⃣ Visibility of System Status

系统状态的可见性

  • Keep users informed about what is going on
    让用户知道发生了什么事
  • What page they are on and what part of a process
    他们在什么页面上以及过程的哪个部分
  • Provide appropriate feedback
    提供适当的反馈
    • About what system is doing, and how input is being interpreted
      关于系统在做什么,以及输入如何被解析
    • E.g. in XXX product, 例如 在 XXX 产品中,
      • "really ungroup?" “真的要取消分组?”
      • loses associated behavior 失去相关行为

# 2️⃣ Match between System And the Real World

系统与现实世界之间的匹配,环境贴切原则

  • Terminology in user's language
    术语基于用户语言
    • Not computer terminology
      不是计算机术语
  • Language from user's perspective
    用户角度的语言
    • "You have bought…" not "We have sold you…"
      “您买了……” 而不是 “我们卖给了您……”
  • Use common words,not "techno-jargon"
    使用常用字词,不要使用 “技术术语”
  • Error messages and feedback refer to user objects
    错误消息和反馈涉及用户对象
  • Allow full-length names
    允许使用全名
  • E.g. "Hit any key to continue"
    例如 “按任意键继续”

# 3️⃣ User Control and Freedom

用户的控制性和自由度

  • Easy to abort: Cancel buttons
    容易中止:取消按钮
    • Cancel order, cancel changing a profile
      取消订单,取消更改个人资料
  • Easy to Undo
    容易撤消
    • Web issue: what does "Back" button do?
      网络问题:“返回” 按钮有什么作用?
      • Example: many sites can get confused if use back button
        示例:如果使用 “后退” 按钮,许多网站可能会感到困惑
  • Users (even experts) will make errors
    用户(甚至专家)都会出错
  • E.g. in XXX product,
    例如 在 XXX 产品中,
    • no way to get out of editing a text field
      没有退出编辑文本字段的方法

# 4️⃣ Consistency and Standards

一致性和标准化

  • Same command always have the same effect
    相同的命令始终具有相同的效果
  • Locations for information, names of commands
    信息位置,命令名称
  • Give the user a mental model of the system
    为用户提供系统的心理模型
  • Size, location, color, wording, function, sequencing, etc.
    大小,位置,颜色,措辞,功能,排序等。
    • E.g., color purple?
      例如,紫色?
  • Following standards helps
    遵循标准有助于
    • Web: use templates or CSS, style guides
      网络:使用模板或 CSS,样式指南
  • Seems easy, but often not followed; e.g. in XXX
    似乎很容易,但常常没有遵循; 例如 在 XXX 中
    • naming "F#1.C#1" vs. "F#1", "C#1"
      命名方式:“F#1.C#1” VS.“F#1”,“C#1”
    • consistent with industry standards: e.g., Copy
      符合行业标准:例如,复制

# 5️⃣ Error Prevention

错误预防

  • Selection rather than entry
    选择而不是输入
    • www.Expedia.com: question, when ambiguous city (e.g. Columbus)
      问题,当城市模棱两可时(例如哥伦布)
  • Remove or gray-out illegal choices
    删除或灰化非法选择
    • Not common for web pages
      网页不常见
  • Auto-fill in
    自动填写
  • Confirmation
    确认
  • Avoid modes
    避免模式
    • Definition: same user action has different results
      定义:同一用户操作具有不同结果
    • Make unavoidable modes visible like ^F for Outlook
      使不可避免的模式,如 Outlook 的 Ctrl+F
    • E.g. Typing "daytime" to a mail program
      例如 在邮件程序上键入 “白天”

# 6️⃣ Recognition rather than Recall

识别,而不是记忆

  • Make objects, actions, options visible
    使对象、动作、选项可见
  • See and pick it, not generate it
    查看并选择它,而不生成它
  • Short-term memory = 7 ±2 items; 30 sec to 2 min
    短期记忆 = 7±2 个项目; 30 秒至 2 分钟。超过 7 个会遗忘
    • unless interrupted
      除非被打断
  • Menus rather than type-in (but short enough)
    菜单而非键入(但足够简短)
  • Auto-fill in helps here too
    自动填写也有帮助
  • Prompts provide format and limits
    提示支持的格式和限制
  • Don't require retyping of remembered information
    不需要重新输入记住的信息
  • Pervasive, generic rules (cut/paste)
    普遍的通用规则(剪切 / 粘贴)
  • E.g. in Aegis, remembering altitude
    例如 在宙斯盾,记得海拔

# 7️⃣ Flexibility and Efficiency of use

灵活性和使用效率

  • Provide Shortcuts
    提供捷径
  • For experienced users
    针对经验丰富的用户
  • E.g., Command keys
    例如,命令键
  • Jump directly to desired location
    直接跳到所需位置
  • Reuse previously entered information
    重复使用以前输入的信息
  • Good default values
    良好的默认值

# 8️⃣ Aesthetic and Minimalist Design

美观和简约的设计

  • Good Graphic Design and Color Choice
    良好的图形设计和色彩选择
    • Appropriately direct attention
      适当的直接关注
    • Group related objects (alignment, decorations)
      分组相关对象(对齐,装饰)
    • Balance and white space
      平衡和空白
    • Maintain display inertia
      保持显示惯性
    • Few fonts and colors (5 to 7 colors)
      几种字体和颜色(5 至 7 种颜色)
      • Appropriate contrast
        适当的对比
      • Some people are color blind (8% of males)
        有些人色盲(男性的 8%)

# 9️⃣ Help Users Recover from Errors

帮助用户从错误中恢复

  • Help users when they are in trouble
    遇到麻烦时帮助用户
  • Opportunities for users to learn about the system
    用户学习系统的机会
  • Clear language; no codes
    语言清晰; 不要错误代码
  • Be precise; Not "syntax error"
    要精确; 不是 “语法错误”
  • Constructively help the user solve the problem
    建设性地帮助用户解决问题
    • Tell why the error happened and how to fix it
      指出错误发生的原因以及解决方法
  • Be polite and not accusing; positive wording:
    有礼貌,不要指责; 正面措辞:
    • Not: "FATAL ERROR", etc.
    • 而不是:“致命错误” 等。

# Error Messages 错误信息

  • Blame the system, not the user
    要责怪系统,而不是用户
    • "Unrecognized" vs. "illegal" command
      “无法识别” 与 “非法” 命令
  • No humor or snide comments
    不要幽默的评论
  • Easy error recovery
    能轻松恢复
  • Can have multiple levels of messages
    可以有多个级别的消息
  • E.g. in XXX product, "can't save file" —why not?
    例如 在 XXX 产品中,“无法保存文件”- 为什么不呢?

# Bad Error Messages

# Pretty good Example

# 🔟 Help and Documentation

  • True walk up and use?
    真正的运行和使用?

  • Most people will not read documentation
    大多数人不会阅读文档

    • If do, then
      如果这样做,那么
      • First time product is used, or else
        首次使用产品,否则
      • In a panic, so need information right away
        出现紧急情况,因此需要立即提供信息
  • Iterative design of documentation needed
    所需文档的迭代设计

    • SuperBook application answer found in 4.3 minutes, compared to 7.6 minutes before fixing
      在 4.3 分钟内找到 SuperBook 应用程序答案,而修复前为 7.6 分钟
  • Help system is an extra feature to learn
    帮助系统是需要学习的额外功能

  • "Help doesn't help"
    “帮助无济于事”

    • If need to add help, maybe fix the feature?
      如果需要添加帮助,也许可以修复该功能?
    • Use documentation writers to help refine the system
      使用文档编写者来帮助完善系统
  • Good quality writing
    高质量的写作

# Example

  1. Shopping cart icon is not balanced with its background whitespace (graphic design)
  2. Good: user is greeted by name (feedback)
  3. Red is used both for help messages and for error messages (consistency, match real world)
  4. "There is a problem with your order", but no explanation or suggestions for resolution (error reporting)
  5. ExtPriceand UnitPriceare strange labels (match real world)
  6. Remove Hardware button inconsistent with Remove checkbox (consistency)
  7. "Click here" is unnecessary (simplicity)
  8. No "Continue shopping" button (user control & freedom)
  9. Recalculate is very close to Clear Cart (error prevention)
  10. "Check Out" button doesn’t look like other buttons (consistency, both internal & external)
  11. Uses "Cart Title" and "Cart Name" for the same concept (consistency)
  12. Must recall and type in cart title to load (recognition not recall, error prevention, efficiency)

# Hints for better HE

  • Use multiple evaluators
    使用多个评估者
    • Different evaluators find different problems
      不同的评估者发现不同的问题
    • The more the better but diminishing returns
      越多越好,但递减
    • Neilsen recommends 3-5
      尼尔森建议 3-5
  • Alternate HE with UT
    用 UT 替代 HE
    • Each method finds different problems
      每种方法都会发现不同的问题
    • HE is cheaper
      HE 便宜
  • Its OK for observer to help evaluator
    可以让观察者帮助评估者
    • As long as the problem has already been noted
      只要问题已经指出
    • This would not be OK in a UT
      在 UT 中这不行

# Suggested Report Format What to include

建议的报告格式

What to include

  • Problem 问题
  • Heuristics 启发式
  • Description 说明
  • Severity 严重程度
  • Recommendation (if any) 推荐(如果有)
  • Screen Shots 屏幕截图


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