# Why ”communications” is important

(p. 61 PMBOK 6th ed)

“research shows that top project managers spend about 90% of their time on a project in communication”
“研究表明,高级项目经理将大约 90%的时间用于沟通项目上”

Information from the Harvard Business Review on an MIT Study

With remarkable consistency, the data confirmed that communication indeed plays a critical role in building successful teams. In fact, we’ve found patterns of communication to be the most important predictor of a team’s success. Not only that, but they are as significant as all the other factors—individual intelligence, personality, skill, and the substance of discussions—combined.

数据具有惊人的一致性,证实了沟通确实在建立成功的团队中起着至关重要的作用。实际上,我们发现沟通模式是团队成功的最重要指标。不仅如此,而且它们与所有其他因素(个人智力,个性,技能和讨论内容)结合在一起也具有重要意义。

…Successful teams share several defining characteristics:
成功的团队具有几个鲜明的特征:

  1. Everyone on team talks and listens in roughly equal measure; keeping contributions short and concise
    团队中的每个人都以大致相等的方式交谈和聆听;简明扼要地做出贡献
  2. Members face one and other and their conversations and gestures are energetic.
    成员彼此面对,他们的对话和手势充满活力。
  3. Members connect directly with one another; not just the team leader
    成员直接相互联系;不只是团队负责人
  4. Members have direct communication with each other
    成员之间相互直接沟通
  5. Members periodically go exploring outside of their team and bring back information
    成员定期去团队之外探索并带回信息

# Project Communications Management 项目沟通管理

(p. 359)

“….includes the processes necessary to ensure that the information needs of the project and its stakeholders are met through development of artifacts and implementation of activities designed to achieve effective information exchange.”
“…… 包括必要的过程,以确保通过开发工件和实施旨在实现有效信息交换的活动来满足项目及其利益相关者的信息需求。”

Communication plans need to be updated as appropriate.
沟通计划需要适当更新。

# Types of concepts for Communications Management 沟通管理的概念类型

(p.360)

  • Written 书面的
  • Spoken 口头的
  • Formal or informal 正式或非正式
  • Through gestures 通过手势
  • Through media 通过媒体
  • Choice of words 单词选择

# Communication Defined

(dictionary.com #3)

Something imparted, interchanged, or transmitted
赋予,交换或传播的东西

Communications should also include the expectation that the receiver understands the message in the way the sender intended.
沟通还应包括期望接收者以发送者意图的方式理解消息。

# Communication Activities 交流活动

(p. 361)

  • Internal 内部的
  • External 外部的
  • Formal 正式的
  • Informal 非正式的
  • Hierarchical focus (up, down, lateral) 层次结构焦点(上,下,横向)
  • Unofficial 非官方的
  • Written and oral 书面和口头

# There are 2 parts to successful communication

成功沟通包含两个部分

  1. (p. 362) Developing an appropriate communication. Based on: 建立适当的沟通。基于:

    • Project needs 项目需求
    • Stakeholder’s needs 利益相关者的需求
  2. (p. 359) Carrying out the activities necessary to implement the communication strategy
    开展实施沟通策略所需的活动

(p. 364)

  • Inclusion of stakeholders in project reviews
    将利益相关者纳入项目审查
  • Inclusion of stakeholders in project meetings
    将利益相关者纳入项目会议
  • Increased use of social computing
    越来越多地使用社交计算
  • Multifaceted approaches to communication
    多方面的沟通方式
  • Embraces & selects from all technologies and respects
    拥抱并选择所有技术和方面
    • Cultural 文化的
    • Practical 实际的
    • Personal preferences (Language, media, content and delivery) 个人喜好(语言,媒体,内容和交付)

# Plan Communications Management 计划沟通管理

(p. 366)
“…the process of developing an appropriate approach and plan for project communications activities based on the information needs of each stakeholder or group, available organizational assets, and the needs of the project.”
“…… 根据每个利益相关者或群体的信息需求,可用的组织资产以及项目的需求,为项目交流活动制定适当的方法和计划的过程。”

(p. 367)
Communications plans are to be reviewed regularly.
沟通计划应定期进行审查。

(p. 367)
When communication planning is started Early in the project
在项目的早期,开始沟通计划

# Communication Plan Inputs 沟通计划输入

(p. 368)

  • Project charter 项目章程
  • Project management plan 项目管理计划
  • Project documents 项目文档
    • Requirements documentation 需求文档
    • Stakeholder register 利益相关者登记册
  • Enterprise environmental factors 企业环境因素
    • Stakeholder risk thresholds 利益相关者风险阈值
    • Geographic distribution of facilities and resources
      设施和资源的地理分布
    • Etc.

# Plan Communication tools and techniques

(p. 369)
工具和技术(T&T)

Expert judgement/Stakeholders, especially customers and sponsors
专家判断 / 利益相关者,尤其是客户和赞助商
Communication Requirement Analysis plan
沟通需求分析计划

# Selection of Technology 技术选择

(p. 369-370)

  • Urgency 紧迫
  • Reliability of channel 通道可靠性
  • Ease of use 使用方便
  • Sensitivity 敏感度
  • Need for persistent documentation 需要永久性文件

# Communication Models

(p. 371)

# “Simple basic sender/receiver communication model”

“简单的基本发送器 / 接收器通信模型”

# “Sample interactive communication model”

“示例交互式通信模型”

  • Acknowledge 告知
  • Feedback 反馈

Definition “noise”= “…any interference or barriers that might compromise the understanding of the message, such as distraction of the receiver, variations in the perceptions of receivers, or lack of the appropriate knowledge or interest.”
定义 “噪声” =“…… 可能影响消息理解的任何干扰或障碍,例如接收者的注意力分散,接收者的感知变化,或缺乏适当的知识或兴趣。”

# The sender is responsible for:

发件人负责:
(p. 372)

  • Picking the right channel 选择正确的频道
  • Transmission of the message 信息的传递
  • Ensuring the information being communicated is clear and complete 确保所传达的信息清晰完整
  • Confirming the message is correctly interpreted 确认消息已正确解释

# Cross-cultural communication

跨文化交流
(p. 373)

  • Age 年龄
  • Nationality 国籍
  • Professional discipline 专业学科
  • Ethnicity 种族
  • Gender 性别
  • Accent 口音

# Communication Methods 沟通方法

(p. 374)

  • Interactive (e.g. real time face-to-face one-on-one conversation)
    互动式(例如即时面对面的一对一对话)
  • Push (like an e-mail that is sent out that no one can reply to)
    推送(就像没有人可以回复的已发送电子邮件一样)
  • Pull (like e-learning)
    拉取(像在线学习一样)

# Communication Plans Output

(p. 377)

  • Communication requirements 沟通要求
  • Frequency of communications 沟通频率
  • Glossary of terms 专业术语
  • Etc. (other types, guidelines & templates)
    等等(其他类型,准则和模板)

# Manage Communications

“… the process of ensuring timely and appropriate collection, creation, distribution, storage, retrieval, management, monitoring, and the ultimate disposition of project information.”
确保及时、适当地收集、创建、分发、存储、检索、管理、监视和最终处置项目信息的过程。

# Cool project documents

(p. 382)

  • Change log 变更记录
  • Issues log 问题日志
  • Lessons learned register 经验教训注册
  • Risk report 风险报告
    • Describes overall project risk 描述总体项目风险
    • Summary information on identified individual risks
      有关已识别的个人风险的摘要信息
    • Communicated to interested stakeholders
      与感兴趣的利益相关者沟通
  • Stakeholder Register 利益相关者登记册

# Work Performance Reports 工作绩效报告

(p. 382)
These support decision making processes and monitoring and controlling.
这些支持决策过程以及监视和控制。

Dashboards (visually displays key performance indicators, in an easy to quickly understand/easily-usable way - bv)
仪表板(以易于快速理解 / 易于使用的方式直观地显示关键性能指标)

Heat reports (a.k.a. “heat maps”)
Stop light charts

One cool use of heat charts I have heard of is tracking where customer’s eyes look when they are viewing products on a store shelf.
This lets marketing people know if their product’s packaging stand out. Also these can be used by web developers, in a similar way, to see how eyes respond to a screen’s design.

我听说过一种很酷的热图用法,它可以跟踪顾客在商店货架上查看产品时眼睛的位置。
这样一来,营销人员就可以知道他们的产品包装是否脱颖而出。网络开发人员也可以用类似的方式来使用这些功能,以查看眼睛对屏幕设计的反应。

This is an isixsigma.com publication. This is a known repository of six sigma knowledge.

# Metrics 指标

Metrics is just a measurement, with no independent specific business value, without context. For example, if I told you your website sold $1,245 in widgets yesterday, is that good news, or, bad news? Given that $1,245 has no context, the $1,245 is a useless number.
指标只是一种度量,没有独立的特定业务价值,没有内容环境。例如,如果我告诉您您的网站昨天售出了 $1,245 的小部件,这是个好消息还是个坏消息?假设 $1,245 没有内容环境,则 $1,245 是无用的数字。

SMART Goals assign meaning to metrics. You can then know if you are on target, and if not, your metrics will indicate that (based on your goal), and can then assist you to understanding if you are getting better as you try to improve.
SMART 目标为指标分配含义。然后,您可以知道自己是否达到了目标,如果没有达到目标,则指标将表明目标(基于目标),然后可以帮助您了解自己在尝试改进时是否有所好转。

Caution: Metrics and goals will drive specific behaviors. Typically desired behaviors. But not always.
注意:度量标准和目标将驱动特定的行为。通常所需的行为。但不总是。

Main Idea…
…“If you can measure it, you can manage it.” Source of quote: Anonymous
“如果可以对其进行衡量,就可以对其进行管理。”

# Metrics Driven Process Improvement Implementation

指标驱动的流程改进实施

  1. Establish measurement. 建立度量。

    • What do you want to measure? 您想要测量什么?
    • What can you measure? 你能衡量什么?
    • What is the potential cost/benefit of each measurement?
      每次衡量的潜在成本 / 收益是多少?
    • Carefully select the most valuable subset
      仔细选择最有价值的子集
    • Implement measuring procedures
      实施测量程序
  2. Establish SMART Goals 建立 SMART 目标

    • Track for a reasonable amount of time (or, if possible use historical data) to understand what is currently happening
      跟踪一段合理的时间(或在可能的情况下使用历史数据)以了解当前发生的情况
    • Establish SMART goals based on business expectations and current environment
      根据业务期望和当前环境建立 SMART 目标
  3. Fix it 修理它

    • PDCA, driven by metrics and SMART goals
      PDCA,由指标和 SMART 目标驱动
    • Redo PDCA until value of further improvement is not warranted.
      重做 PDCA,直到无法保证进一步改进的价值为止。

# Only Apply SMART Goals When…

仅在以下情况下应用 SMART 目标:

  • People understand the importance to the business
    人们了解业务的重要性
  • People have the resources and authority to manage business processes and functions that impact SMART goal related metrics (huge issue)
    人们拥有管理影响 SMART 目标相关指标的业务流程和功能的资源和权力(大问题)
  • Stakeholders who can positively impact ability for SMART goals to be:
    能够对 SMART 目标产生积极影响的利益相关者是:
    • Educated to understand the importance of meeting established SMART Goals
      接受教育,了解实现既定智能目标的重要性
    • Can be incented to achieve SMART goal targets
      可以激励实现智能目标
  • SMART goals can be monitored and updated as time goes on to ensure they remain effective and drive efficient behaviors
    随着时间的推移,可以监控和更新智能目标,以确保它们保持有效并驱动高效行为
  • Conditions related to achieved SMART goals are monitored as time passes to ensure that conditions do not deteriorate.
    随着时间的流逝,将监测与实现智能目标相关的条件,以确保条件不会恶化。

# Metrics can drive bad behavior

Situation: I had a friend once, who who worked for a globally known and highly respected delivery company. He was in charge of 5 delivery trucks. Each truck driver had clearly stated goals for when all the packages in their trucks needed to be delivered by. My friend told me he had an issue one day when one of the trucks he was responsible for broke down.
我曾经有一个朋友,他为一家全球知名和备受尊敬的快递公司工作。 他负责 5 辆送货卡车。 每个卡车司机都明确规定了何时需要交付卡车上的所有包裹的目标。 我的朋友告诉我,有一天,他负责的一辆卡车抛锚了,他有一个问题。

Bad Behavior: None of the other 4 drivers, when asked, came to assist with the stranded packages. This was because the other 4 drivers knew that if they left their route, they would not make their delivery goals, and would therefore lose their monthly cash performance-incentive.
其他 4 名司机在被问及时,都没有来协助处理滞留的包裹。 这是因为其他 4 名司机知道,如果他们离开他们的路线,他们不会使他们的交付目标,因此将失去他们每月的现金绩效激励。

Lesson Learned: Metrics based goals need to be created in a way that they are adaptive (a.k.a can be changed or altered in unusual situations) to allow for situations like this.
吸取的教训:基于指标的目标需要以适应性强的方式创建(即可以在异常情况下更改或更改),以允许这种情况发生。

# Metrics can drive unethical behaviors, especially in sales

指标可以驱动不道德行为,尤其是在销售中

  • Distribution of defective products to make “sales goals”
    分配缺陷产品,实现 "销售目标"

  • In the financial industry, alleged giving services to people they did not ask for “Wells Fargo (WFC) now says it has found a total of up to 3.5 million potentially fake bank and credit card accounts”
    在金融行业,据称向没有要求的人提供服务,"富国银行(WFC)现在说,它已发现多达 350 万个潜在的假银行和信用卡账户"

  • 5,300 Wells Fargo employees fired over 2 million phony accounts:
    5,300 名富国银行员工解雇了 200 多万个虚假账户


Stop watching at 3:21 (1.3 M views)


Wells Fargo we’ve fixed it video commercial (1 minute/2018)

# Key Communication Skills

(pp. 384 - 385)

  • Feedback 反馈
  • Non-verbal 不用言辞表达
  • Presentations 报告、演示
  • Social media 社交媒体
    • Placement 安排
    • Damage control 损害控制

# Interpersonal & Team Skills – Huge!

(p. 386)

  • Active listening 积极倾听
  • Conflict management 冲突管理
  • Cultural awareness 文化意识
  • Meeting management 会议管理
  • Networking 联网
  • Political awareness 政治意识

# Monitor Communications

Defined: “… the process of ensuring the information needs of the project and its stakeholders are met.” (p. 388)
“…… 确保满足项目及其利益相关者的信息需求的过程。”

Value: “…determines if the planned communications artifacts have had the desired effect of increasing or maintaining stakeholder’s support for the project’s deliverables and expected outcomes.” (p. 389)
“…… 确定计划中的沟通工件是否具有增加或保持利益相关者对项目可交付成果和预期成果的支持的预期效果。”

You need to make sure the intended audience is getting the message in the intended way.
您需要确保目标受众正在以预期的方式获得消息。

# how

(p. 389)

  • Surveys 调查
  • Lessons learned/retrospectives 经验教训 / 回顾
  • Team observations 团队观察
  • Reviewing the issues log 查看问题日志
  • Stakeholder feedback 利益相关者反馈

# Project Management Plan Updates

(p. 393)

  • A change control process should be used when updating the communication plan, inside the project management plan.
    在项目管理计划内更新沟通计划时,应使用变更控制过程。
  • Communications management plan: updated with information to make new information communications more effective.
    沟通管理计划:已更新信息,以使新的信息沟通更加有效。
  • Stakeholder engagement plan:
    利益相关者参与计划:
    • Communication needs 沟通需求
    • Why they are important to the project
      为什么它们对项目很重要

# General Topics on Communication

# Number of communication paths

n(n1)/2n(n-1)/2

Comment: This is also called the “hand shake” formula.
这也称为 “握手” 公式。

Observations:

  • As the number of people engaged in a communication increases the number of potential interactions grows rapidly
    随着参与交流的人数增加,潜在互动的数量迅速增加
  • If you don’t manage how these interactions take place, communication will get out of control quickly
    如果您无法管理这些互动的发生方式,交流将很快失去控制
  • The more people engaged in a communication, the more interactions, the more likely the message can be misinterpreted by someone.
    参与交流的人越多,互动越多,则某人可能会误解该消息。
  • As the number increases it is harder to make sure everyone is involved
    随着人数的增加,很难确保每个人都参与其中

# 6 things to never discuss at work:

工作中永远不要讨论的 6 件事

via Travis Bradberry

  • That you are job hunting 你在找工作
  • Your political beliefs 你的政治信仰
  • How much money you make 你赚多少钱
  • That you hate your job 你讨厌你的工作
  • What you or others do in private, in the bedroom 您或其他人在卧室里私下所做的事情
  • That you think someone is incompetent 你认为某人没有能力

# PMBOK ON CONFLICT

P 349 (Project Resource Management Chapter)

  • Withdraw/avoid 撤回 / 避免
  • Smooth/accommodate 顺滑 / 适应
  • Compromise/reconcile 妥协 / 调和
  • Force/direct 强制 / 直接
  • Collaborate/problem solve 协作 / 问题解决

# Harvard Business Review: How to disagree with your boss

哈佛商业评论:如何不同意你的老板

  • Explain that you have a different opinion and ask if you can voice it.
    说明您有不同的意见,并询问您是否可以发表意见。
  • Restate the original point of view or decision so it’s clear you understand it.
    重述原始观点或决定,以便您清楚地理解。
  • Speak slowly and calmly
    缓慢而平静地说话
  • State that you are adding your opinion because you support the best interests of the company
    声明您添加自己的观点是因为您支持公司的最大利益
  • Use facts as possible.
    尽可能使用事实。
  • Don’t use judgement words like “hasty,” “foolish,” etc.
    请勿使用 “严肃”,“愚蠢” 等判断性词语。
  • Have an alternative ready
    准备好替代品

# Ethos, Pathos, Logos: building credibility 树立信誉

Ethos 气质
is a Greek word meaning "character" that is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals of the communicator
是希腊语,意为 “字符”,用于描述沟通者的指导性信念或理想
Pathos 动人
when a communicator appeals to the emotions of the audience and elicits feelings that already reside in them.
当传播者诉说听众的情绪,并引起他们已经存在的感觉时。
Logos 徽标
when a communicator appeals to logic
当沟通者诉说逻辑时

Source = Wikipedia

# When you need something do not use “ASAP”

  • ”ASAP” is an acronym that stands for as soon as possible
    “ASAP” 是首字母缩写,代表尽快
  • It means different things to different people
    对不同的人来说意味着不同的事情
  • Always provide an exact date by which you need something
    务必提供您需要的确切日期
  • The date can act like a trigger event to reach out to someone who is not responding (e.g. I asked for the document on October 1, and I never received it.)
    日期就像触发事件一样,触及没有响应的人(例如,我在 10 月 1 日索要该文件,但我从未收到过该文件。)

# “What’s In It For Me” (A.K.A., WIIFM)

“对我有什么好处”(又名 WIIFM)

You are making an attempt to tell the receiver of your message why the communication is important from their perspective.
您正在尝试告诉您的消息接收者,为什么从他们的角度讲交流很重要。

The idea is that by having people understand why it is important to them, they are more likely to take the action you want them to take.
这个想法是通过让人们理解为什么对他们如此重要,他们更有可能采取您希望他们采取的行动。

# TED Talk

# “How Understanding Conflict Can Help Improve Our Lives”

27 K views 12 min
了解冲突如何帮助改善我们的生活

Starting a presentation with a story is a very powerful technique.
从故事开始演示是一种非常强大的技术。
What was her story?
Conflict lies in:
冲突在于:

  • “Limited Resources” 有限的资源
  • ”Unmet Needs” 未满足的需求
  • “Different Values” 不同的价值观

What is the difference between a “need” vs. a “want?”
“需要” 与 “想要” 之间有什么区别?

Differences sort of inherent in the terms themselves.
差异是这些术语本身固有的。
A "need" is like you know in whatever manner you're doing to go on with your normal process.
需要是指,你知道无论你以何种方式可以继续你的正常程序。
Whereas a "want" is a more, maybe trivial is the wrong word, but less important , desire something you wanna kind of add to your life for your daily process.
而想要是更多,也许 “微不足道” 这个词用错了,但却不那么重要。一些你想要添加到你的生活为你的日常过程。

How will being able to separate out these two items make negotiations easier?
能够将这两个项目分开,如何使谈判更加容易?

as you can compromise on what's, but you can't compromise on needs.
你可以对现状妥协,但你不能对需求妥协。

Do emotions get in the way of logical thinking?
情绪会阻碍逻辑思维吗?

yeah. Emotions do get the way of logical thinking when the victim is us, our people who are close to us,
是的,当受害者是我们或我们身边的人时,情绪确实会以逻辑思维的方式进行思考。

What is empathy, what does it have to do with understanding emotions, and, why does displaying true empathy establish a good foundation for conflict resolution?
什么是移情,与理解情感有什么关系?为什么表现出真正的移情,为解决冲突奠定了良好的基础?

What are some good techniques to move a person from emotional thinking to logical thinking?
有什么好的技巧,可以将一个人从情感思维转变为逻辑思维?

Trying to empathize with and validate their feelings in the situation.
试着同情和确认他们在这种情况下的感受。

# TED on conflict

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  • Debate requires that we engage with the conflicting idea, directly, respectfully…
    辩论要求我们直接、恭敬地参与相互矛盾的想法...
    - The foundation of debate is rebuttal.
    辩论要求我们直接、恭敬地参与相互矛盾的想法...
  • People who disagree the most productively start by finding common ground
    持不同意见的人最富有成效地从找到共同点开始

Why is “directly” confronting the issues important?
为什么 "直接" 面对这些问题很重要?

Because first of all, avoiding the issue doesn't help it. you know it's a band aid on the problem.
因为首先,回避这个问题并没有什么用。这只是问题的权宜之计。
Directly confronting the issue brings about not only chance to resolve that issue but reach some kind of positive growth related to the issue.
直接面对问题不仅带来解决问题的机会,还可以实现与该问题相关的某种正增长
Through directly confronting that we can reach the shared reality, which I can see is some of your other questions so.
通过直接面对,我们可以达到共同的现实,我可以看到你的一些其他问题。

What is a “shared reality?”
什么是 "共享现实"?
What starts the beginning of a “shared reality?”
是什么开启了 "共同现实" 的开始?

You will find in common ground with people you're debating with.
你会发现和你辩论的人有共同点。
Because in order to actually persuade people, you need to sort of convince them of you and then sharing a reality of you.
因为为了真正说服人们,你需要说服他们,然后分享你的现实。
Both having you know you find a place where you agree on the basic issue and build up from there to whatever the issue your argument is.
你知道你找到了一个在基本问题上达成一致的地方,从那里开始建立,不管你的论点是什么。

“Your only winning strategy is to engage with the best, clearest, least personal version of the idea. ” Why is engaging with the “least personal” approach so important?
"你唯一的制胜策略是参与最佳、最清晰、最不个人化的想法。为什么采用" 最不个人化 " 的方法如此重要?

The reason for the conversation, not the person's personality or treat, or whatever uh concerns the person personally.
谈话的原因,而不是这个人的个性或待遇,或者任何与个人有关的事情。
The idea or the conversation is the focus. And it's best have that as the center of the conversation. so We can put benefit from it. And you can understand the person's point of view, and the person can also understand your point of view.
思想或谈话是焦点。把它作为谈话的中心是最好的。所以我们可以从中受益。并且你能理解对方的观点,对方也能理解你的观点。

Why does submitting “ideas anonymously” work?
为什么提交 "匿名想法" 有效?

It takes away a certain level of a bias. You Limiting or judging in person from probably how the person looks or what you think of the person.
它消除了一定程度的偏见。你可能会通过这个人的长相,亲自限制或判断你对这个人的看法
But when we don't know whoever is, when we take away the bias from our judgments or decisions, it gives us an opportunity, to the open minded to be free, to get the best.
但是,当我们不知道谁是谁,当我们从我们的判断中去除偏见或决定,这给了我们一个机会,开放的思想是自由的,得到最好的。
And you'll be surprised that someone you least expected to give you a bright idea, we'll get give you the brightest idea.
你会惊讶地发现你最意想不到的人,给你一个好主意,我们会得到最好的主意。

What is “intellectual humility” and how can it help reduce conflict?
什么是 "理智的谦虚",如何帮助减少冲突?

有了这个,让你看到超越人们的限制,让你看到人们最好的一面。它让你。
With that, makes you see beyond people's limitations and makes you see the best in people. It makes you bring on and welcome all ideas and then get the filter through and decide which will be best for the cost of a project or a particular situation.
带来并欢迎所有的想法,然后通过过滤并决定哪一个最适合一个项目或特定 UM 的成本的情况,
so that's definitely would let you is a good skill to possess as a leader or as a team play as well.
作为一个领导者,或者作为一个团队,这是一项很好的技能。
Because that's actually kind of a you know kind of a contributor to a more toxic style of debate where it becomes sort of uh uh more of an individuals of backing individuals.
因为那实际上是一种,你知道,这是一种更具毒性的辩论风格,它变得更像是支持个人的个人。
when you remove your sense of ownership of the idea, you can evaluate the idea itself in a clear way.
当你消除了对想法的拥有感时,你可以清晰的评估想法本身。

# How to Manage A Web Design Project | Niswatch E04