# Why ”communications” is important

(p. 61 PMBOK 6th ed)

“research shows that top project managers spend about 90% of their time on a project in communication”
“研究表明,高级项目经理将大约 90%的时间用于沟通项目上”

Information from the Harvard Business Review on an MIT Study

With remarkable consistency, the data confirmed that communication indeed plays a critical role in building successful teams. In fact, we’ve found patterns of communication to be the most important predictor of a team’s success. Not only that, but they are as significant as all the other factors—individual intelligence, personality, skill, and the substance of discussions—combined.


…Successful teams share several defining characteristics:

  1. Everyone on team talks and listens in roughly equal measure; keeping contributions short and concise
  2. Members face one and other and their conversations and gestures are energetic.
  3. Members connect directly with one another; not just the team leader
  4. Members have direct communication with each other
  5. Members periodically go exploring outside of their team and bring back information

# Project Communications Management 项目沟通管理

(p. 359)

“….includes the processes necessary to ensure that the information needs of the project and its stakeholders are met through development of artifacts and implementation of activities designed to achieve effective information exchange.”
“…… 包括必要的过程,以确保通过开发工件和实施旨在实现有效信息交换的活动来满足项目及其利益相关者的信息需求。”

Communication plans need to be updated as appropriate.

# Types of concepts for Communications Management 沟通管理的概念类型


  • Written 书面的
  • Spoken 口头的
  • Formal or informal 正式或非正式
  • Through gestures 通过手势
  • Through media 通过媒体
  • Choice of words 单词选择

# Communication Defined

(dictionary.com #3)

Something imparted, interchanged, or transmitted

Communications should also include the expectation that the receiver understands the message in the way the sender intended.

# Communication Activities 交流活动

(p. 361)

  • Internal 内部的
  • External 外部的
  • Formal 正式的
  • Informal 非正式的
  • Hierarchical focus (up, down, lateral) 层次结构焦点(上,下,横向)
  • Unofficial 非官方的
  • Written and oral 书面和口头

# There are 2 parts to successful communication


  1. (p. 362) Developing an appropriate communication. Based on: 建立适当的沟通。基于:

    • Project needs 项目需求
    • Stakeholder’s needs 利益相关者的需求
  2. (p. 359) Carrying out the activities necessary to implement the communication strategy

(p. 364)

  • Inclusion of stakeholders in project reviews
  • Inclusion of stakeholders in project meetings
  • Increased use of social computing
  • Multifaceted approaches to communication
  • Embraces & selects from all technologies and respects
    • Cultural 文化的
    • Practical 实际的
    • Personal preferences (Language, media, content and delivery) 个人喜好(语言,媒体,内容和交付)

# Plan Communications Management 计划沟通管理

(p. 366)
“…the process of developing an appropriate approach and plan for project communications activities based on the information needs of each stakeholder or group, available organizational assets, and the needs of the project.”
“…… 根据每个利益相关者或群体的信息需求,可用的组织资产以及项目的需求,为项目交流活动制定适当的方法和计划的过程。”

(p. 367)
Communications plans are to be reviewed regularly.

(p. 367)
When communication planning is started Early in the project

# Communication Plan Inputs 沟通计划输入

(p. 368)

  • Project charter 项目章程
  • Project management plan 项目管理计划
  • Project documents 项目文档
    • Requirements documentation 需求文档
    • Stakeholder register 利益相关者登记册
  • Enterprise environmental factors 企业环境因素
    • Stakeholder risk thresholds 利益相关者风险阈值
    • Geographic distribution of facilities and resources
    • Etc.

# Plan Communication tools and techniques

(p. 369)

Expert judgement/Stakeholders, especially customers and sponsors
专家判断 / 利益相关者,尤其是客户和赞助商
Communication Requirement Analysis plan

# Selection of Technology 技术选择

(p. 369-370)

  • Urgency 紧迫
  • Reliability of channel 通道可靠性
  • Ease of use 使用方便
  • Sensitivity 敏感度
  • Need for persistent documentation 需要永久性文件

# Communication Models

(p. 371)

# “Simple basic sender/receiver communication model”

“简单的基本发送器 / 接收器通信模型”

# “Sample interactive communication model”


  • Acknowledge 告知
  • Feedback 反馈

Definition “noise”= “…any interference or barriers that might compromise the understanding of the message, such as distraction of the receiver, variations in the perceptions of receivers, or lack of the appropriate knowledge or interest.”
定义 “噪声” =“…… 可能影响消息理解的任何干扰或障碍,例如接收者的注意力分散,接收者的感知变化,或缺乏适当的知识或兴趣。”

# The sender is responsible for:

(p. 372)

  • Picking the right channel 选择正确的频道
  • Transmission of the message 信息的传递
  • Ensuring the information being communicated is clear and complete 确保所传达的信息清晰完整
  • Confirming the message is correctly interpreted 确认消息已正确解释

# Cross-cultural communication

(p. 373)

  • Age 年龄
  • Nationality 国籍
  • Professional discipline 专业学科
  • Ethnicity 种族
  • Gender 性别
  • Accent 口音

# Communication Methods 沟通方法

(p. 374)

  • Interactive (e.g. real time face-to-face one-on-one conversation)
  • Push (like an e-mail that is sent out that no one can reply to)
  • Pull (like e-learning)

# Communication Plans Output

(p. 377)

  • Communication requirements 沟通要求
  • Frequency of communications 沟通频率
  • Glossary of terms 专业术语
  • Etc. (other types, guidelines & templates)

# Manage Communications

“… the process of ensuring timely and appropriate collection, creation, distribution, storage, retrieval, management, monitoring, and the ultimate disposition of project information.”

# Cool project documents

(p. 382)

  • Change log 变更记录
  • Issues log 问题日志
  • Lessons learned register 经验教训注册
  • Risk report 风险报告
    • Describes overall project risk 描述总体项目风险
    • Summary information on identified individual risks
    • Communicated to interested stakeholders
  • Stakeholder Register 利益相关者登记册

# Work Performance Reports 工作绩效报告

(p. 382)
These support decision making processes and monitoring and controlling.

Dashboards (visually displays key performance indicators, in an easy to quickly understand/easily-usable way - bv)
仪表板(以易于快速理解 / 易于使用的方式直观地显示关键性能指标)

Heat reports (a.k.a. “heat maps”)
Stop light charts

One cool use of heat charts I have heard of is tracking where customer’s eyes look when they are viewing products on a store shelf.
This lets marketing people know if their product’s packaging stand out. Also these can be used by web developers, in a similar way, to see how eyes respond to a screen’s design.


This is an isixsigma.com publication. This is a known repository of six sigma knowledge.

# Metrics 指标

Metrics is just a measurement, with no independent specific business value, without context. For example, if I told you your website sold $1,245 in widgets yesterday, is that good news, or, bad news? Given that $1,245 has no context, the $1,245 is a useless number.
指标只是一种度量,没有独立的特定业务价值,没有内容环境。例如,如果我告诉您您的网站昨天售出了 $1,245 的小部件,这是个好消息还是个坏消息?假设 $1,245 没有内容环境,则 $1,245 是无用的数字。

SMART Goals assign meaning to metrics. You can then know if you are on target, and if not, your metrics will indicate that (based on your goal), and can then assist you to understanding if you are getting better as you try to improve.
SMART 目标为指标分配含义。然后,您可以知道自己是否达到了目标,如果没有达到目标,则指标将表明目标(基于目标),然后可以帮助您了解自己在尝试改进时是否有所好转。

Caution: Metrics and goals will drive specific behaviors. Typically desired behaviors. But not always.

Main Idea…
…“If you can measure it, you can manage it.” Source of quote: Anonymous

# Metrics Driven Process Improvement Implementation


  1. Establish measurement. 建立度量。

    • What do you want to measure? 您想要测量什么?
    • What can you measure? 你能衡量什么?
    • What is the potential cost/benefit of each measurement?
      每次衡量的潜在成本 / 收益是多少?
    • Carefully select the most valuable subset
    • Implement measuring procedures
  2. Establish SMART Goals 建立 SMART 目标

    • Track for a reasonable amount of time (or, if possible use historical data) to understand what is currently happening
    • Establish SMART goals based on business expectations and current environment
      根据业务期望和当前环境建立 SMART 目标
  3. Fix it 修理它

    • PDCA, driven by metrics and SMART goals
      PDCA,由指标和 SMART 目标驱动
    • Redo PDCA until value of further improvement is not warranted.
      重做 PDCA,直到无法保证进一步改进的价值为止。

# Only Apply SMART Goals When…

仅在以下情况下应用 SMART 目标:

  • People understand the importance to the business
  • People have the resources and authority to manage business processes and functions that impact SMART goal related metrics (huge issue)
    人们拥有管理影响 SMART 目标相关指标的业务流程和功能的资源和权力(大问题)
  • Stakeholders who can positively impact ability for SMART goals to be:
    能够对 SMART 目标产生积极影响的利益相关者是:
    • Educated to understand the importance of meeting established SMART Goals
    • Can be incented to achieve SMART goal targets
  • SMART goals can be monitored and updated as time goes on to ensure they remain effective and drive efficient behaviors
  • Conditions related to achieved SMART goals are monitored as time passes to ensure that conditions do not deteriorate.

# Metrics can drive bad behavior

Situation: I had a friend once, who who worked for a globally known and highly respected delivery company. He was in charge of 5 delivery trucks. Each truck driver had clearly stated goals for when all the packages in their trucks needed to be delivered by. My friend told me he had an issue one day when one of the trucks he was responsible for broke down.
我曾经有一个朋友,他为一家全球知名和备受尊敬的快递公司工作。 他负责 5 辆送货卡车。 每个卡车司机都明确规定了何时需要交付卡车上的所有包裹的目标。 我的朋友告诉我,有一天,他负责的一辆卡车抛锚了,他有一个问题。

Bad Behavior: None of the other 4 drivers, when asked, came to assist with the stranded packages. This was because the other 4 drivers knew that if they left their route, they would not make their delivery goals, and would therefore lose their monthly cash performance-incentive.
其他 4 名司机在被问及时,都没有来协助处理滞留的包裹。 这是因为其他 4 名司机知道,如果他们离开他们的路线,他们不会使他们的交付目标,因此将失去他们每月的现金绩效激励。

Lesson Learned: Metrics based goals need to be created in a way that they are adaptive (a.k.a can be changed or altered in unusual situations) to allow for situations like this.

# Metrics can drive unethical behaviors, especially in sales


  • Distribution of defective products to make “sales goals”
    分配缺陷产品,实现 "销售目标"

  • In the financial industry, alleged giving services to people they did not ask for “Wells Fargo (WFC) now says it has found a total of up to 3.5 million potentially fake bank and credit card accounts”
    在金融行业,据称向没有要求的人提供服务,"富国银行(WFC)现在说,它已发现多达 350 万个潜在的假银行和信用卡账户"

  • 5,300 Wells Fargo employees fired over 2 million phony accounts:
    5,300 名富国银行员工解雇了 200 多万个虚假账户

Stop watching at 3:21 (1.3 M views)

Wells Fargo we’ve fixed it video commercial (1 minute/2018)

# Key Communication Skills

(pp. 384 - 385)

  • Feedback 反馈
  • Non-verbal 不用言辞表达
  • Presentations 报告、演示
  • Social media 社交媒体
    • Placement 安排
    • Damage control 损害控制

# Interpersonal & Team Skills – Huge!

(p. 386)

  • Active listening 积极倾听
  • Conflict management 冲突管理
  • Cultural awareness 文化意识
  • Meeting management 会议管理
  • Networking 联网
  • Political awareness 政治意识

# Monitor Communications

Defined: “… the process of ensuring the information needs of the project and its stakeholders are met.” (p. 388)
“…… 确保满足项目及其利益相关者的信息需求的过程。”

Value: “…determines if the planned communications artifacts have had the desired effect of increasing or maintaining stakeholder’s support for the project’s deliverables and expected outcomes.” (p. 389)
“…… 确定计划中的沟通工件是否具有增加或保持利益相关者对项目可交付成果和预期成果的支持的预期效果。”

You need to make sure the intended audience is getting the message in the intended way.

# how

(p. 389)

  • Surveys 调查
  • Lessons learned/retrospectives 经验教训 / 回顾
  • Team observations 团队观察
  • Reviewing the issues log 查看问题日志
  • Stakeholder feedback 利益相关者反馈

# Project Management Plan Updates

(p. 393)

  • A change control process should be used when updating the communication plan, inside the project management plan.
  • Communications management plan: updated with information to make new information communications more effective.
  • Stakeholder engagement plan:
    • Communication needs 沟通需求
    • Why they are important to the project

# General Topics on Communication

# Number of communication paths


Comment: This is also called the “hand shake” formula.
这也称为 “握手” 公式。


  • As the number of people engaged in a communication increases the number of potential interactions grows rapidly
  • If you don’t manage how these interactions take place, communication will get out of control quickly
  • The more people engaged in a communication, the more interactions, the more likely the message can be misinterpreted by someone.
  • As the number increases it is harder to make sure everyone is involved

# 6 things to never discuss at work:

工作中永远不要讨论的 6 件事

via Travis Bradberry

  • That you are job hunting 你在找工作
  • Your political beliefs 你的政治信仰
  • How much money you make 你赚多少钱
  • That you hate your job 你讨厌你的工作
  • What you or others do in private, in the bedroom 您或其他人在卧室里私下所做的事情
  • That you think someone is incompetent 你认为某人没有能力


P 349 (Project Resource Management Chapter)

  • Withdraw/avoid 撤回 / 避免
  • Smooth/accommodate 顺滑 / 适应
  • Compromise/reconcile 妥协 / 调和
  • Force/direct 强制 / 直接
  • Collaborate/problem solve 协作 / 问题解决

# Harvard Business Review: How to disagree with your boss


  • Explain that you have a different opinion and ask if you can voice it.
  • Restate the original point of view or decision so it’s clear you understand it.
  • Speak slowly and calmly
  • State that you are adding your opinion because you support the best interests of the company
  • Use facts as possible.
  • Don’t use judgement words like “hasty,” “foolish,” etc.
    请勿使用 “严肃”,“愚蠢” 等判断性词语。
  • Have an alternative ready

# Ethos, Pathos, Logos: building credibility 树立信誉

Ethos 气质
is a Greek word meaning "character" that is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals of the communicator
是希腊语,意为 “字符”,用于描述沟通者的指导性信念或理想
Pathos 动人
when a communicator appeals to the emotions of the audience and elicits feelings that already reside in them.
Logos 徽标
when a communicator appeals to logic

Source = Wikipedia

# When you need something do not use “ASAP”

  • ”ASAP” is an acronym that stands for as soon as possible
    “ASAP” 是首字母缩写,代表尽快
  • It means different things to different people
  • Always provide an exact date by which you need something
  • The date can act like a trigger event to reach out to someone who is not responding (e.g. I asked for the document on October 1, and I never received it.)
    日期就像触发事件一样,触及没有响应的人(例如,我在 10 月 1 日索要该文件,但我从未收到过该文件。)

# “What’s In It For Me” (A.K.A., WIIFM)

“对我有什么好处”(又名 WIIFM)

You are making an attempt to tell the receiver of your message why the communication is important from their perspective.

The idea is that by having people understand why it is important to them, they are more likely to take the action you want them to take.

# TED Talk

# “How Understanding Conflict Can Help Improve Our Lives”

27 K views 12 min

Starting a presentation with a story is a very powerful technique.
What was her story?
Conflict lies in:

  • “Limited Resources” 有限的资源
  • ”Unmet Needs” 未满足的需求
  • “Different Values” 不同的价值观

What is the difference between a “need” vs. a “want?”
“需要” 与 “想要” 之间有什么区别?

Differences sort of inherent in the terms themselves.
A "need" is like you know in whatever manner you're doing to go on with your normal process.
Whereas a "want" is a more, maybe trivial is the wrong word, but less important , desire something you wanna kind of add to your life for your daily process.
而想要是更多,也许 “微不足道” 这个词用错了,但却不那么重要。一些你想要添加到你的生活为你的日常过程。

How will being able to separate out these two items make negotiations easier?

as you can compromise on what's, but you can't compromise on needs.

Do emotions get in the way of logical thinking?

yeah. Emotions do get the way of logical thinking when the victim is us, our people who are close to us,

What is empathy, what does it have to do with understanding emotions, and, why does displaying true empathy establish a good foundation for conflict resolution?

What are some good techniques to move a person from emotional thinking to logical thinking?

Trying to empathize with and validate their feelings in the situation.

# TED on conflict

2.6 M Views/14.56 Min

  • Debate requires that we engage with the conflicting idea, directly, respectfully…
    - The foundation of debate is rebuttal.
  • People who disagree the most productively start by finding common ground

Why is “directly” confronting the issues important?
为什么 "直接" 面对这些问题很重要?

Because first of all, avoiding the issue doesn't help it. you know it's a band aid on the problem.
Directly confronting the issue brings about not only chance to resolve that issue but reach some kind of positive growth related to the issue.
Through directly confronting that we can reach the shared reality, which I can see is some of your other questions so.

What is a “shared reality?”
什么是 "共享现实"?
What starts the beginning of a “shared reality?”
是什么开启了 "共同现实" 的开始?

You will find in common ground with people you're debating with.
Because in order to actually persuade people, you need to sort of convince them of you and then sharing a reality of you.
Both having you know you find a place where you agree on the basic issue and build up from there to whatever the issue your argument is.

“Your only winning strategy is to engage with the best, clearest, least personal version of the idea. ” Why is engaging with the “least personal” approach so important?
"你唯一的制胜策略是参与最佳、最清晰、最不个人化的想法。为什么采用" 最不个人化 " 的方法如此重要?

The reason for the conversation, not the person's personality or treat, or whatever uh concerns the person personally.
The idea or the conversation is the focus. And it's best have that as the center of the conversation. so We can put benefit from it. And you can understand the person's point of view, and the person can also understand your point of view.

Why does submitting “ideas anonymously” work?
为什么提交 "匿名想法" 有效?

It takes away a certain level of a bias. You Limiting or judging in person from probably how the person looks or what you think of the person.
But when we don't know whoever is, when we take away the bias from our judgments or decisions, it gives us an opportunity, to the open minded to be free, to get the best.
And you'll be surprised that someone you least expected to give you a bright idea, we'll get give you the brightest idea.

What is “intellectual humility” and how can it help reduce conflict?
什么是 "理智的谦虚",如何帮助减少冲突?

With that, makes you see beyond people's limitations and makes you see the best in people. It makes you bring on and welcome all ideas and then get the filter through and decide which will be best for the cost of a project or a particular situation.
带来并欢迎所有的想法,然后通过过滤并决定哪一个最适合一个项目或特定 UM 的成本的情况,
so that's definitely would let you is a good skill to possess as a leader or as a team play as well.
Because that's actually kind of a you know kind of a contributor to a more toxic style of debate where it becomes sort of uh uh more of an individuals of backing individuals.
when you remove your sense of ownership of the idea, you can evaluate the idea itself in a clear way.

# How to Manage A Web Design Project | Niswatch E04