# Project 项目

Defined 定义:
PMI’s Definition of Project (PMBOK 6th ed., p.715)

“A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result.”

PMBOK - Project Management Body Of Knowledge(美国的项目管理知识体系)

# Why do we do projects 为什么要做项目

# Vision, Mission & Project

Defined 定义:

The Vision 愿景 = why
The over-arching idea that the leader promotes, which when correctly conceived and stated, will drive people to invest themselves in making the vision come to fruition.
The Mission 使命 = what
An expression of the vision that drives to a specific plan of action.
The Project 项目 = how
Implements a part of the mission.


  • The Vision = The leader of the organization wants humans to have access to good quality food, fast, all around the globe.
    愿景 = 该组织的领导者希望人类能够在全球范围内快速获取优质食品。
  • The Mission = The organization will build restaurants, in accordance with the vision
    使命 = 组织将根据愿景建立餐厅。
  • The Project = Build a restaurant, in support of the vision, at the corner of 31st and State Street in Chicago.
    项目 = 在芝加哥 31 号街和州街的拐角处建立一家餐厅,以支持愿景。

# Example Visions

17 Vision Statement Examples To Spark Your Imagination

“To become the world’s most loved, most flown, and most profitable airline.” – Southwest Air
“成为世界上最受欢迎,最飞行,最赚钱的航空公司。” –西南航空

“Our vision is to create a better every-day life for many people.” – IKEA
“我们的愿景是为许多人创造更好的日常生活。” –宜家

“To be the best quick service restaurant experience. Being the best means providing outstanding quality, service, cleanliness, and value, so that we make every customer in every restaurant smile.” – McDonald’s
“成为最佳的快速服务餐厅体验。做到最好意味着提供卓越的质量,服务,清洁度和价值,以便我们让每家餐厅的每个顾客都微笑。” –麦当劳

# What Makes an Effective Vision Statement? 什么是有效的愿景声明?

There are specific characteristics that effective vision statements have in common. Look for these traits when updating your current vision statement or crafting a new one.

  • Future-focused. Create a future-focused vision statement by providing the “big picture” and clearly describing what your organization will be like in several years.
    面向未来。通过提供 “全局图” 并清楚地描述您的组织在几年后的状况,创建面向未来的愿景声明。
  • Directional. Vision statements that provide direction can serve as a guide to organizational plans and strategies.
  • Specific. An effective vision statement should be clear and focused enough to shape decision-making.
  • Relevant and purpose-driven. By reflecting your company’s response to the challenges of the day, a purpose-driven vision statement can motivate your team.
  • Values-based. Use your vision statement to describe the specific values that are required to support the organization.
  • Challenging. A vision statement can challenge your employees and customers by inspiring them to do great things and achieve a higher level of standards.
  • Unique and memorable. Your company’s vision statement will make more of an impact if it highlights what makes your organization different and why it matters.
  • Inspiring. Vision statements that inspire employees to commit to a cause are more effective than those that do not.

# Core Competency: The key to organizational success 核心竞争力:组织成功的关键

A Core Competency 核心竞争力
Something the organization does amazingly well
Very hard for others to reproduce
Deliverables are valuable to customers

Once you have a vision, a core competency must be cultivated to maintain a competitive advantage.

Projects are how you enact, and continually improve, the components of your core competency.

# Other Specific Reasons to Have Projects 拥有项目的其他具体原因

  • Grow/strengthen competitive advantage
    扩大 / 加强竞争优势
  • Legal mandate
  • Leverage new technology
  • Make money
  • Improve existing process
  • Public good
  • Competitive response
  • Money is in the budget
  • Marketing Life Cycle

Projects must support the organization’s vision and mission, or they will fail.

# the Stages of the Product Life Cycle 产品生命周期

  • Introduction 介绍
  • Growth 成长
  • Maturity 到期
  • Decline 下降

Q: What the Product Life Cycle has to do with Project Management?
A: Project Managers are needed at each step!

# Example Product Life Cycle: Incandescent Light Bulbs


Introduction 介绍
People willing to pay a lot, only wealthy people can get it (These wealthy people are called the innovators or early adopters.)
Growth 增长
Mass production starts, price comes down, it is relatively easy to buy and more and more people buy it.
Maturity 成熟
Only few don’t have it; marketing starts adding features to rebuild interest in product again (dimmable, soft-white, different shapes, etc.)
Decline 下降
A new innovation comes along, making this product inferior (Spiral florescent lights and LEDs came along)
随之而来的是一项新的创新,使该产品的质量下降(同时出现了螺旋荧光灯和 LED)

# Where a project starts 项目从何处开始

# Project Business Case 项目业务案例

(PMBOK 6th ed., p.29)

“A documented economic feasibility study used to establish the validity of the benefits of a” specific effort “that is used as a basis for authorization of further project management activities.”
“有记录的经济可行性研究,用于确定 “特定努力” 所产生的收益的有效性,以此作为进一步项目管理活动授权的基础。”

# Some Components 一些组件

(PMBOK 6th ed., p.31-32)

# Business Need 业务需求分析

  • Why is this project desired?
  • How does it support the organizational vision/Mission?
    它如何支持组织的愿景 / 使命?
  • Description of prosed project.

# Analysis of the Situation 情况分析

  • Critical success factors
  • Known risks
  • Identification of examined options, and option selection criteria used
  • NPV (if appropriate, assess financial viability)

# Recommendation 建议

  • Proceed or not & why
  • expected due date

# Evaluation 评价

  • Identification of factors that will be used to determine if the deliverable of the project is a success.
  • How will success measures be tracked, and who will they be reported to

# A Statement of Work (SOW) and/or Project Charter

工作说明书(SOW)和 / 或 项目章程

These documents formally launch a project…

PMI Definitions: 定义

Statement of Work (SOW) 工作说明书
A narrative description of products, services, or results to be delivered by the project. (PMBOK 6th ed., p.724)
Project Charter 项目章程
A document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities. (PMBOK 6th ed., p.715)

# 4 Key Considerations 四个关键注意事项

The role of a project manager is to successfully balance the four key considerations; Time, Cost, Quality and Scope.

A successful project will:

  • Be within an acceptable level of adherence to each of these 4 considerations (Time, Cost, Quality and Scope), as based on the stated needs of stakeholders who have the power to determine success.
  • The consumers of the project’s deliverables are satisfied.
  • The necessary resources for the project (technology, specific professional skills, unique materials, etc.) are available to the project team when they are needed.
    Though not a part of the Iron Triangle, this was added because in the PMBOK 6th ed., on p.10, “resources” are specifically mentioned along side of Time, Cost, Quality and Scope.
    尽管不是铁三角的一部分,但由于在 PMBOK 的第 6 版中,第 111 页而添加了它。在图 10 中,在时间,成本,质量和范围旁边特别提到了 “资源”。

PMI’s Definitions as found in the PMBOK 6th Ed.:

Cost 成本
Project Cost Management should consider the effect of project decisions on the subsequent recurring cost of using, maintain, and supporting the product, service or result of the project (p. 233)
Quality 质量
The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements. (p. 718)
To PMI, just meeting requirements as a core success criteria. Modern quality experts establish the expectation customer satisfaction. For example, and according to Juran, meeting expectations regarding fitness of use is the definition of quality.
对于 PMI,仅将满足要求作为核心成功标准即可。现代质量专家建立了对客户满意的期望。例如,据 Juran 所说,满足有关使用适用性的期望,是质量的定义。
Scope 范围
The sum of the products, services, and results to be provided as a project. (p. 722)
Time 时间
A limited period or interval, as between two successive events. Dictionary.com – 4th definition

# What project managers do

# Specifically on the Project Manager’s Role

(PMBOK 6th ed p.52)

  • Possess understanding, knowledge and experience
    具有理解力,知识 和经验
  • “Provides leadership
  • Coordination through communication
  • Existence of requirements
  • Planning, including project schedules (Gantt charts/ MS Project)
    规划,包括项目进度表(甘特图 / MS Project)
  • Monitor/control
    监控 / 控制
  • SMART Goals/Metrics/KPIs Project execution
    SMART 目标 / 指标 / KPI 项目执行
  • Project’s outcome
  • The PM does not need to be an expert!
    PM 不必是专家!

# Knowledge

  • Technical 技术
  • Project management 项目管理
  • Understanding 理解
  • Experience 经验

# Leadership

For a team:

  • Guide 指南
  • Motivate 激励
  • Direct 直接

PM’s Leadership Abilities (in no order):
PM 的领导能力(无顺序)

  • Negotiation 谈判
  • Communication 沟通
  • Problem solving 解决问题
  • Critical thinking 批判性思维
  • Interpersonal skills 人际交往技巧

# Process Groups

The Five Traditional Process Groups Explained

# Project Manager Responsibilities

Defined 定义:
(PMBOK 6th ed., p.52 & p.716)

“The project manager is the person assigned by the performing organization to lead the team that is responsible for achieving the project objectives.”

This definition assumes the entire company is the “performing organization.”
此定义假设整个公司都是 “绩效组织”。

# SMART Goal

Get Real SMART: Setting Goals — Well.

When you ask a typical person about their goals, often they will respond by detailing their dreams – their dream job, their dream house, their dream business.
当您问一个人目标是什么时,他们通常会详细说明他们的梦想来进行回答 - 他们的梦想工作,他们的梦想家园,他们的梦想生意。

Dreams are important; they give us a direction to move towards, but I think it’s important to note that they are not the same as goals.

Goals (when written well), like dreams, are aspirational — but they are also more specific. While a dream may be the roof of the building, goals are the steps and landings of the stairwell. For example, if your dream is to run a world-renowned restaurant, your goal-trajectory might be: get accepted into, and graduate from culinary school; land a job as a cook at a notable restaurant; move through the ranks in notable restaurants until you reach chef status; find a financial backer and open the restaurant; gain exposure and win accolades; etc.

The thing is, most people aren’t very good at setting goals either. While the goals laid out above are better at giving direction to someone’s career, they could be stronger. How? By making them SMART.
问题是,大多数人也不太擅长设定目标。尽管以上列出的目标,可以更好地指导某人的职业发展,但目标还可以变得更强。该怎么做?通过使它们更 SMART。

# SMART + Lexicon Use Example

SMART 词典使用示例

Related Lexicon (new words)

  • Program 程序
    • Specific 特定的
    • Measurable 可衡量的
    • Achievable 可达到的
    • Realistic / Relevant 现实 / 相关的
    • Time bound 有时限的

# Specific 特定的

A specific goal is a goal that has a bit of depth to it. It isn’t saying “I want to go to culinary school”, it’s saying “I want to graduate from The Culinary Institute of America in their baking program”. Specificity is important so that you know exactly what needs to be done in order for the goal to be deemed a success.
一个特定的目标是有一定深度的目标。这并不是说 “我想去烹饪学校”,而是 “我想从美国烹饪学院的烘烤计划中毕业”。特异性很重要,因为这样您可以确切地知道需要做什么才能使目标成功。

# Measurable 可衡量的

A measurable goal is one that is based on some sort of metric. Instead of saying “I want to have good knife skills”, a measurable goal would be: “I want to be able to finely and evenly dice 5 onions per minute.”
可衡量的目标是基于某种度量标准的目标。一个可衡量的目标不是说 “我想拥有良好的刀技能”,而是:“我希望能够每分钟细细均匀地切成 5 个洋葱。”

# Attainable 可达到的

A goal that is attainable is a goal that you can accomplish. People have a tendency to get over-zealous with their goals when they are excited and passionate. However, setting goals that you will not be able to accomplish doesn’t make sense for anyone. It’s more important to be realistic than too aspirational here. Break down larger goals into pieces if you need to, in order to accomplish them. For example: if your big goal is to open a restaurant, but you aren’t very good at cooking yet, a smaller and more attainable goal would be to learn to cook well, or even learn to cook a few things well. As you attain certain goals and get better at something, new goals may become attainable.


# Relevant 相关的

Relevant goals are goals that help you progress to your dream. If you are trying to reach culinary stardom at any cost, it doesn’t make sense to waste your precious time learning to be an awesome mechanic. Sure, it might be super useful to you personally, but in this case, it doesn’t help you reach your dream or goals.


# Time-bound 有时限的

The best goals are also time bound. Adding this constraint is important so that you are able to keep yourself accountable. Setting goals is sort of like creating a to-do list. You have on your list what you want to do today, what you want to do tomorrow, etc. With goals you may have daily goals, monthly goals, yearly goals, etc. Be very specific with the dates you choose, and make sure that you would also be able to complete the goal without unreasonable stress.


# Goals 关于目标

  • Metrics are just a way to measure
  • Goals need to be flexible to allow for unique situations
  • SMART goals are needed to make metrics meaningful
    需要 SMART 目标,以使指标有意义
  • Goals provide context for metrics

# Example

Together, SMART goals help shape a roadmap for reaching your dreams. One SMART goal for an aspiring restaurant owner who has spent years perfecting their trade, and is now ready to venture off on their own may look like this:
SMART 目标有助于制定实现梦想的路线图。对于一个有抱负的餐馆老板,他们花了多年的时间完善自己的贸易,现在准备自己冒险,这是一个 SMART 目标,看起来可能是这样的:

By January 15, 2018, I want to have developed, and tested (have friends and family sample, and give rating on a 1-10 scale) five sample items for the menu.
到 2018 年 1 月 15 日,我希望开发和测试菜单上的五个示例项目(具有朋友和家人的示例,并以 1-10 的等级进行评级)。

  • Was This Specific? – They didn’t say: “I want to have a menu written” They said: “developed, and tested (have friends and family sample, and give rating on a 1-10 scale) five sample items”
    这可测量吗? –可以测量五个项目。 1-10 的评分等级是一个指标。是否已开发 / 测试过某些产品–是或否?
  • Was This Measurable? – Five items can be measured. A rating scale of 1-10 is a metric. Is something developed/tested – yes or no?
    这是可以实现的吗? –该博客文章撰写于 2017 年 8 月,因此可能取决于厨师的奉献精神和能力。为了我们的目的,我们将假设五个项目是一个合理的数字。
  • Was This Attainable? – This blog piece was written in August 2017, so depending on the dedication and ability of the chef, this may or may not be attainable. We are going to assume that five items is, for our purposes, a reasonable number.
    这是可以实现的吗? –该博客文章撰写于 2017 年 8 月,因此可能取决于厨师的奉献精神和能力。为了我们的目的,我们将假设五个项目是一个合理的数字。
  • Was This Relevant? – Having a menu is the corner stone of a restaurant, so this is relevant.
    这相关吗? –拥有菜单是餐厅的基石,所以这很重要。
  • Was This Time-bound? – Yes, by saying “by January, 15, 2018” the goal is explicitly time-bound.
    这有时间限制吗? –是的,通过说 “到 2018 年 1 月 15 日”,目标显然是有时间限制的。

There are many ways to set goals, and reach them. Making goals SMART has worked wonders for me and many others in the past. If you have trouble following through with actions, feel like you could be more organized, or are just looking for ways to be more efficient, I would highly recommend setting and following the SMART Goal framing.
有很多方法可以设定目标并达到目标。制定目标 SMART 过去为我和其他许多人创造了奇迹。如果您在执行操作时遇到困难,觉得自己可能更有条理,或者只是在寻找提高效率的方法,我强烈建议您设置并遵循 SMART 目标框架。

# Stakeholder 利益相关者

Defined 定义:
(PMBOK 6th ed., p. 723)

“…an individual, or group, or organization that may affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of a project…”
“…… 可能会受项目的决定、活动或结果,影响、被影响或认为自己受其影响的,个人、团体或组织……”

# The Project Plan Ties it all Together

(PMBOK 6th ed., p. 8)

  • Scope management plan 范围管理计划
  • Requirements management plan 需求管理计划
  • Schedule management plan 进度管理计划
  • Cost management plan 成本管理计划
  • Quality management plan 质量管理计划
  • Resource management plan 资源管理计划
  • Communications management plan 通讯管理计划
  • Risk management plan 风险管理计划
  • Procurement management plan (procurement = buying good or services) 采购管理计划(采购 = 购买商品或服务)
  • Stakeholder engagement plan 利益相关者参与计划

# Summary

You Don’t Need Formal Management to Get Results, but…

Using generally accepted project management techniques will increase the chances of a success.

If a project fails, a project manager who follows generally accepted project management principles, will be more likely to keep their job.

# Questions

# How Great Leaders Inspire Action

LEADERSHIP How Great Leaders Inspire Action – Simon Sinek

  1. What does “thinking from the inside out” mean?
    "从内到外思考" 是什么意思?

    reversed the order of the information.

    None of what I'm telling you is my opinion. It's all grounded in the tenets of biology. Not psychology, biology. If you look at a cross-section of the human brain, from the top down, the human brain is actually broken into three major components that correlate perfectly with the golden circle. Our newest brain, our Homo sapien brain, our neocortex, corresponds with the "what" level. The neocortex is responsible for all of our rational and analytical thought and language. The middle two sections make up our limbic brains, and our limbic brains are responsible for all of our feelings, like trust and loyalty. It's also responsible for all human behavior, all decision-making, and it has no capacity for language.
    我要告诉你的只是我的意见。 这一切都基于生物学的宗旨。 不是心理学,生物学。 如果 从上到下 查看人脑的横截面,则人脑实际上分为 与黄金圈完美相关的 三个主要组成部分。我们最新的大脑,智人大脑, 新皮层, 与 “什么” 水平相对应。 新大脑皮层负责 我们所有的理性和分析性思想和语言。 中间的两个部分组成了我们的边缘大脑, 而边缘大脑负责我们所有的感觉, 例如信任和忠诚。 它还负责所有人类行为, 所有决策, 并且没有语言能力。
    In other words, when we communicate from the outside in, yes, people can understand vast amounts of complicated information like features and benefits and facts and figures. It just doesn't drive behavior. When we can communicate from the inside out, we're talking directly to the part of the brain that controls behavior, and then we allow people to rationalize it with the tangible things we say and do. This is where gut decisions come from.
    换句话说,当我们从外部进行沟通时, 是的,人们可以理解大量复杂的信息, 例如功能,优势,事实和数据。 它只是不会驱动行为。 当我们能够从内而外进行交流时, 我们就是在与 控制行为 的大脑部分直接交谈,然后我们允许人们使用我们说和做的切实的事情使之合理化。 这就是直截了当的决定。

  2. How do great leaders act to inspire others?

    People don't buy what you do; they buy why you do it. If you talk about what you believe, you will attract those who believe what you believe.
    人们不买你做的事。他们买你为什么这么做。 如果您谈论自己的信仰, 就会吸引那些相信自己的信仰的人。

  3. Why is “why” so important?
    为什么 "为什么" 如此重要?

    Leaders hold a position of power or authority, but those who lead inspire us. Whether they're individuals or organizations, we follow those who lead, not because we have to, but because we want to. We follow those who lead, not for them, but for ourselves.
    Listen to politicians now, with their comprehensive 12-point plans. They're not inspiring anybody.
    立即聆听政客的全面 12 点计划。他们没有激励任何人。
    it's those who start with "why" that have the ability to inspire those around them or find others who inspire them.
    那些以 “为什么” 开始的人有能力激发周围的人或找到其他激发他们的人。

  4. What do you want to hire for; people who work for money, or people that work for passion?

    work for passion

  5. Samuel Pierpont Langley was inspired by what? How did his “inspiration” affect his success?
    Samuel Pierpont Langley 受到什么的启发?他的 "灵感" 如何影响他的成功?

    He wanted to be rich, and he wanted to be famous. He was in pursuit of the result. He was in pursuit of the riches.
    他想致富,他想出名。 他在追求结果。 他追求财富。
    And further proof that Langley was motivated by the wrong thing: the day the Wright brothers took flight, he quit. He could have said, "That's an amazing discovery, guys, and I will improve upon your technology," but he didn't.

  6. How can you use the “why” as a Scrum Master or Project Manager.
    作为项目管理员或项目经理,如何使用 "为什么"

    the law of diffusion of innovation,
    People don't buy what you do; they buy why you do it, and what you do simply serves as the proof of what you believe.
    人们不买你做的事。他们购买您为什么这么做, 而您所做的只是证明您相信自己的事。

# What is a Project, and What is a SMART Goal?

Case 1:
The Chicago Police Department has found a vendor that can install a new technology across the city that can give the GPS coordinates of people who yell “help” when outside of a building, car, or similar. The idea is that this will reduce the time it takes to get first responders (police, paramedics, firemen, etc.) to places they are urgently needed.
芝加哥警察局找到了一家供应商,该供应商可以在整个城市中安装一项新技术,该技术可以为在建筑物、汽车或类似场所外大喊大叫求助的人提供 GPS 坐标。这样做的目的是减少急救人员(警察,医护人员,消防员等)到达急需地点的时间。
Case 2:
You are the new principal of an inner-city grammar school in Los Angeles. While observing the classroom situation, the first thing you notice is that the same parents, over and over again, arrive late with their children to start the school day and some students are very disruptive. You get a grant (a grant is a gift from an individual or organization to achieve something good) to implement a trial of a virtual reality experience in the classroom so students are less distracted by the un-avoidable, distracting, surroundings.
Case 3:
You are the CEO for XYZ defense contractor. Your large and well-known firm’s PCs still run on Windows 7. You ask Aron, a highly respected Project Manager at your firm to oversee an upgrade all the PCs in your firm to Windows 8. (Please respond to the questions below from Aron’s perspective.)
您是 XYZ 国防承包商的 CEO。您的大型知名公司的 PC 仍在用 Windows 7。您请贵公司备受尊敬的项目经理 Aron 监督公司中所有 PC 升级到 Windows 8 的升级。(请从 Aron 的角度回答以下问题。)
You asked for an upgrade to Windows 8 instead of Windows 10 (the most current PC/Windows operating system) because your technical experts have always advised you to intentionally be behind in operating system upgrades by 5 years in order to avoid the bugs that typically accompany new operating system roll outs.
您要求升级到 Windows 8 而不是最新的 Windows 10,是因为您的技术专家一直建议您故意将操作系统升级落后 5 年,以免出现伴随新操作系统推出时常出现的错误。

Questions to apply to each case above:

  1. What is the project?
  2. What is one example SMART goal for the project?
    该项目的 SMART 目标示例是什么?
    Comment: SMART stands for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant and Timely. Please see this post for a further explanation of SMART goals.
    注:SMART 代表特定,可衡量,可实现,相关性和及时性。
  3. Who are the stakeholders for the project?

# Quiz Understanding PM

  1. What is this the PMI definition of “A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result.”?

    a Project

  2. Concisely Stated The Vision = ?

    • the Why
    • the What
    • the How
    • The Who
  3. What are the Stages of the Product Life Cycle?

    • Introduction
    • Growth
    • Maturity
    • Decline
  4. What is this the definition of?: “A documented economic feasibility study used to establish the validity of the benefits of a” specific effort “that is used as a basis for authorization of further project management activities.”

    a Business Case

  5. This is the definition of a statement of work: A narrative description of products, services, or results to be delivered by the project.

  6. This the definition of a Project Charter? :A document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.

  7. What is this the term related to this definition? “The sum of the products, services, and results to be provided as a project”.

    • Time
    • Cost
    • Quality
    • Scope
  8. This is the definition of a project manager’s responsibilities: “The project manager is the person assigned by the performing organization to lead the team that is responsible for achieving the project objectives.”

# Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 工作分解结构

“A hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables.” (PMBOK 6th Ed. P. 726)

  • Organizes work in hierarchy format
  • For each level down, tasks have a more limited scope, that is they are more narrowly defined
  • Can be either pictorial (like an organizational hierarchy chart) or in an outline like format

# Why is the WBS Useful?

  • Documents what needs to get done.
  • Organizes work.
  • Great tool to show people what you have in mind.

# What the WBS Does For You

  • Budget 预算
    • Allocate Labor Expense 分配人工费用
    • Allocate Non-Labor Expense 分配非人工费用
  • Time Line 时间线
    • Defining What to do First 定义先做什么
    • Determining Work Sequence 确定工作顺序
  • Responsibility Matrix 责任矩阵
    • Assigning Ownership 分配所有权

# Work Package

“The work defined at the lowest level of the work breakdown structure for which cost and duration are estimated and managed.” (PMBOK 6th ed. P.726)

At the lowest level of your WBS you’ll find the work packages.
在 WBS 的最低级别,您会用到工作包。

This represents the components of the project that will be managed as separate tasks.

They are not ordered when looking left to right on the pictorial WBS. At the same level of decomposition in the outline format, there is no order. This activity is left to the project schedule.
在图片 WBS 上从左向右看时,它们没有顺序。 在大纲格式的相同分解级别上,没有顺序。 该活动留在项目进度表中。

Their size is dictated by the duration that the project manager can manage.

# WBS Examples

Barn Defined:

A barn is a structure that farmers use to hose cows, horses etc. in. They also keep their farm equipment in their barns; like tractors etc.

# WBS; Outline Form 大纲式

Barn Construction
	1.1.0.    Foundation
		1.1.1     Excavation*
		1.1.2     Footers & Slab*
	2.1.0.    Structure
		2.1.1     Frame & Roof*
		2.1.2     Siding*

* These are work packages

# WBS; Pictoral Form 画报式

The pictorial form of the WBS, for a project of anything larger than a very small project, will:
对于任何大于很小项目的项目,WBS 的图形形式都将:

  • Likely not fit on a sheet of paper, or,
  • It will be too small to read on a PC screen
    太小了,无法在 PC 屏幕上阅读
    But, in terms of a nice way to learn about WBSs, it works quite well. So, for the remainder of this presentation, the pictorial form will be used.
    但是,它确实是学习 WBS 的一种好方法。

# Decompose; Class Question 分解;类问题

It means each level down is more subdivided than the previous level.

The result of all this decomposing is the list of work packages that you will want to manage to.

Decomposition 分解
“A technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts” (PMBOK 6th ed p. 704)

# WBS is Used in Creating...

# Responsibility matrix 责任矩阵

CindyFooters & Slab
BullFrame & Roof

# Work Package Based Estimating 基于工作包的估算

Footers & Slab$750K
Frame & Roof$175K

# Schedule Matrix 进度矩阵

#Tasks (in order)RequiresWhoDuration in days
1Perform ExcavationCindy15
2Set footers and slab1Tom2
3Build Frame & Roof2Bull1
    title Gantt Chart
    dateFormat  YYYY-MM-DD
    section Perform Excavation
    Cindy           : a1, 2021-01-01, 15d
    section Set footers and slab
    Tom      : a2, after a1, 2d
    section Build Frame & Roof
    Bull : a3, after a2, 1d
    section Siding
    Arun: after a3, 1d

# WBS Dictionary

Behind the items in the WBS is something called the WBS dictionary
WBS 的项目背后是一种叫做 WBS 字典的东西

It contains detailed information on each item in the WBS (e.g. budget etc.), including work packages.
它包含 WBS 中每个项目的详细信息(例如预算等),包括工作包。

“A document that provides detailed deliverable, activity, and scheduling information about each component in the work breakdown structure” (PMBOK P. 726)
一个文档,提供了 WBS 工作分解结构中,每个组件的详细可交付性、活动和计划信息。

# Hints

# How to create a WBS

# Work Package Points

PMs typically don’t set up the cost allocation methodology – get help
PMs 通常不设置成本分配方法 – 获取帮助

Could be direct, indirect, capital, expense, etc.

There are Sarbanes-Oxley implications on this - take this seriously.
Sarbanes-Oxley 对此有影响 - 认真对待这一点。

Share billing rates with team members at your own peril

# Summary

The WBS Provides Input to…

  • Responsibility matrix 责任矩阵
  • Schedule building 进度构建
  • Work package based estimating 基于工作包的估算
  • Other processes too

# Design Thinking