# Direct and Manage Project Work 指导和管理项目工作
Direct and Manage Project Work is the process of leading and performing the work defined in the project management plan and implementing approved changes to achieve the project’s objectives.
The key benefit provides overall management of the project work deliverables, and thus improves the probability of project success.
- Planned project activities to complete project deliverables
- Accomplish established objectives
The Project Manager directs the performance of the planned project activities and manages the various technical and organizational interfaces and through monitor-and-control, applies the necessary guidance to ensure the project remains on track.
# Project Documents 项目文件
- Requirements 需求
- Change requests 变更需求
- Lessons learned register 经验教训注册
- Milestone list 里程碑清单
- Project communications: 项目交流
- Action items 行动项目
- Status reports 状态报告
- Issue logs 问题日志
- Assumptions 假设
- Known risks 已知风险
- Minutes 分钟
- Project schedule (HUGE!) 项目进度表（巨大！）
- Requirements trackability matrix (RTM; annoying but necessary) 需求可跟踪性矩阵（RTM；烦人但有必要）
Example RTM can link the non technical to technical requirements 示例 RTM 可以将非技术要求与技术要求联系起来
- Risk register (huge! - see final course project for details) 风险登记册（巨大！- 有关详细信息，请参阅最终课程项目）
# Deliverables 可交付成果
“a deliverable is any unique and verifiable product, result, or capacity to perform a service…”
This is an excellent test question!
What you deliver to your customer!
# Issue Log – You’ll need to use this 问题日志
- Topic – what the issue is 主题–问题是什么
- Who identified it 谁识别了
- When it was discovered 被发现时
- Priority (high, low, medium -> “Show stopper”) 优先级（高，低，中 ->“显示挡块”）
- Who owns the resolution 谁拥有决议
- What happens if the issue is not resolved 如果问题未解决，该怎么办？
- Target closure date 目标截止日期
- Dates of Status/closure 状态 / 关闭日期
- Use “alt/enter” to build a new line on an excel spreadsheet. 使用 “ alt /enter” 在 excel 电子表格上建立新行。
- Date every entry, and have a name on every entry 为每个条目加上日期，并在每个条目上都有一个名称
# Issue vs. Risk 问题与风险
- Risk 风险
- something good or bad that might happen
- Issue 问题
- a known activity that must be dealt with, may be the result of a risk item manifesting itself.
# Change requests – why?
- project policies 项目政策
- Scope 范围
- Any baselined document 任何基准文件
- Cost 成本
- Budget 预算
- Quality demand 质量要求
- Product results 产品结果
- Requirements 要求
- Corrective action 纠正措施
- Preventative action 预防措施
- Defect repair 缺陷修复
- Updates 更新
- New information 新讯息
# Manage Project Knowledge
“...is the process of using existing knowledge and creating new knowledge to achieve the project’s objectives and contribute to organizational learning.”
# 2 Types of Knowledge
- Explicit knowledge (words, pictures, & numbers can express them) 明确的知识（单词，图片和数字可以表达它们）
- Relatively easy to capture 比较容易捕捉
- Relatively easy to share 比较容易分享
- Tacit (Beliefs, insights, ability & experience) 默契（信念，见解，能力和经验）
- Hard to share 很难分享
- Stored in minds (typically experts) 储存在头脑中（通常是专家）
- Shared through conversations 通过对话分享
- (like feelings) （喜欢的感觉）
# Observations on Tacit Knowledge 隐性知识观察
Stories shared at the right time to deliver knowledge
First hand experience is trusted more
Expert can gauge what learner is ready to learn
Expert can alter sequence of learning to optimize delivery
People can use body language to express important points
People can be excellent source of on-demand chunks of knowledge
# Methods to Share Knowledge 分享知识的方法
- Communities of practice
- Work shadowing
- Story telling (huge!)
# Monitor and Control Project Work 监控项目工作
…track, review, & report project progress compared to plan.
Allows stakeholders to understand the current state of the project, to recognize the actions taken to address any key performance issues, and to have visibility into the future project status with cost and schedule forecasts.
# Perform Integrated Change Control 执行综合变更控制
“…is the process of reviewing all change requests; approving changes and managing changes to deliverables, project documents, and the project management plan; and communicating the decisions” to the appropriate stakeholders.
it allows for documented changes within the project to be considered in an integrated manner while addressing overall project risk, which often arises from changes made without consideration of the overall objectives or plans.
# 2 failures to react to change, or react fast enough
# The Challenge space shuttle disaster.
The unexpected change was a very cold launch pad:
Challenger: A Rush To Launch
Jan/’85 - 53 degree Fahrenheit temperature allowed primary “o” ring to fail one year earlier (Allan McDonald) Director of Rocket Booster Project @5:36 min)
# Chicago Marathon Death
“CHICAGO, Oct. 7 — As temperatures soared into the upper 80s, hundreds of runners in the Chicago marathon fell ill and at least one died on Sunday, prompting officials here to halt the annual race for the first time in its 30-year history.”*
Details (optional viewing)
# The performance integrated change control process…
“is conducted from project start through completion and is the ultimate responsibility of the project manager.”
Change control process:
- Identify 识别
- Document 文件
- Decide on changes ;
“Review changes, approving, rejecting, deferring, or making other decisions about changes to the project documents, deliverables, or baselines.
- Track changes: 跟踪变化
- Identified 已识别
- Registered 已登记
- Assessed (huge!) 已评估
- Approved 已确认
- Tracked 已跟踪
- Communicate completion 沟通完成
# Decision Making (Huge!)
- Voting 投票
- Autocratic decision making – one person votes for all
专制决策 —— 一人投票赞成
- Multicriteria decision analysis: the use of a decision matrix to provide an analytical approach to selecting a correct option. (See next slide.)
This is an example of “multicriteria decision making”
# Close project of phase 结束阶段项目
This is boring and tedious 这很无聊又乏味
But, it can save you a lot of time and money years down the line if you do it right
“…is the process of finalizing all activities for the project, phase, or contract. ”
“project and phase information is archived, and the planned work is completed, and the organizational team resources are released to pursue (other projects).”
# Important (p.123)
- All documents should be up-to-date with all issues resolved
- Formal acceptance (especially lean waivers)
- All costs are to be charged to the project
- Close project accounts
- Re-assign personnel
- Deal with excess material and scrap
- Clean up any environmental mess
- Relocate project facilities, equipment, and other resources
# More activities (p.123)
- Confirm formal acceptance of work product (huge!)
- Update records to indicate final results
- Archive project information (very hard to do)
# Assignment B
Dr. Covey’s “The 7 Habits of Highly Effect People” Essay Questions
# Purpose/Intent: 目的 / 意图
Scrum Masters are defined as “Servant Leaders.” An important attribute of Servant Leaders is they develop the skills and abilities of the people in their sphere of influence. This book will show you how to improve yourself as a leader, professionally, and as a human. And, once you gain comfort in improving yourself, you will be well positioned to grow the personal abilities of your team members. The idea of this assignment is to have you read, understand, and demonstrate that you can apply the lessons in this book while in a team leadership role. In addition to strengthening your leadership ability, this assignment is in direct support of employee development, which is a component of human resources. Human resources is a unit of this course.
Scrum Masters 被定义为 “仆人领袖”。仆人式领导者的一个重要属性是他们在势力范围内发展人民的技能和能力。本书将向您展示如何提高自己的领导才能，职业素养和作为人的能力。而且，一旦您在改善自己的能力上感到舒适，就可以很好地提高团队成员的个人能力。这项任务的目的是让您阅读，理解和证明您可以在担任团队领导角色时应用本书中的课程。除了增强领导能力外，这项工作还直接支持员工发展，这是人力资源的组成部分。人力资源是本课程的一部分。
BIO (as found on Amazon.com): Dr. Stephen R. Covey is a renowned leadership authority, teacher, organizational consultant, and co-founder of FranklinCovey Co. He is author of several international bestsellers, including The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, which has sold over 20 million copies. He was named one of TIME Magazine's 25 Most Influential Americans. Also, (as found on Wikipedia), he earned an MBA from Harvard.
Stephen R. Covey 博士是著名的领导机构，老师，组织顾问和 FranklinCovey Co. 的共同创始人。他是几本国际畅销书的作者，其中包括《高效人的七个习惯》，该书的销量已超过 2000 万册。他被《时代周刊》评选为 25 位最有影响力的美国人之一。另外，（在 Wikipedia 上找到），他获得了哈佛大学的 MBA 学位。
Time Estimate: Students indicate that it takes about 20 hours to read this book. They typically read it in English, though that is not required (it has been translated into over 20 languages) After you complete reading this book, I anticipate it will take about 2 to 3 hours to complete this written component of this assignment. I hope you will work on it for a bit, put it down, and come back once you think about it some more (and repeat this process).
Why I chose this book:
- Mr. Covey provides a great example of leadership, through example, in this book.
- Specifically, in habits 1-3, there are many hints as to how to be a great Scrum Master.
具体来说，在习惯 1-3 中，有很多关于如何成为一名出色的 Scrum Master 的提示。
- There are many tips on how to personally improve to get more of what you desire out of life.
- Mr. Covey demonstrates his excellent leadership skills in this book using Ethos (character), Pathos (emotion), and Logos (Logic). Just type in any of these three terms into Google, and you will find much information on these subjects. Also, I have read Wikipedia for these items, and they do a good job on these topics. Ethos, Pathos and Logos are the core of being accepted as credible and trusted.
Covey 先生在本书中使用了 Ethos（角色），Pathos（情感）和 Logos（逻辑）展示了他出色的领导才能。只需在 Google 中输入这三个术语中的任何一个，您就会发现有关这些主题的很多信息。另外，我已经阅读了 Wikipedia 中的这些项目，它们在这些主题上做得很好。 Ethos，Pathos 和 Logos 是被公认为可信和受信任的核心。
- This book has been translated into about 24 languages. International students may be able to read this book in their favorite language.
本书已被翻译成大约 24 种语言。国际学生可以用他们喜欢的语言阅读这本书。
- This book is easy to find, and can be purchased at a relatively low price. It is also found in most libraries. But, I do recommend buying it, and taking notes in it as you read it.
There will be no questions on exams from this book.
As for the minimum word count on your answers, when you answer a question, use as few words as possible. But, use just enough words to get your meaning across. I say this because using as few words as possible to deliver your meaning is a skill that will help you succeed in business. Compact, concise, meaningful e-mails get read, and then acted on. Long and dull e-mails that take a while to get to the point do not get read. In fact, they tend to get ignored, and the author’s future communications will tend to be ignored too. What this means in this instance is that I am expecting for you to read the book and understand what the principles that Covey shares mean to you. And, establishing a minimum word count is not a good way to determine if you derived meaning from the book (or not).
至于回答的最少单词数，当您回答问题时，请使用尽可能少的单词。但是，只用足够多的词来表达您的意思即可。我之所以这样说，是因为使用尽可能少的单词来表达您的意思是一项可以帮助您成功开展业务的技能。阅读紧凑，简洁，有意义的电子邮件，然后采取行动。冗长而乏味的电子邮件需要花费一些时间才能到达目的。实际上，它们往往会被忽略，作者未来的交流也将被忽略。在这种情况下，这意味着我希望您阅读本书并了解 Covey 所分享的原则对您而言意味着什么。而且，确定最小字数不是确定您是否从书中得出含义的好方法。
# The Assignment:
Please read the questions below before you read the book. Please copy/paste the questions found here into a MS Word document, answer each question, then post your MS Word document in Blackboard. The idea is to answer the 5 following questions in an essay format (using as few words as possible). The contribution of each question to your score for this assignment immediately follows the essay prompt in parenthesis.
在阅读本书之前，请先阅读以下问题。请将此处找到的问题复制 / 粘贴到 MS Word 文档中，回答每个问题，然后将您的 MS Word 文档张贴在 Blackboard 中。想法是以论文形式（使用尽可能少的单词）回答以下五个问题。每个问题对您本次作业分数的贡献都紧随括号中的论文提示。
What personal change do you want to make to become more effective in your professional and personal life? (10%)
What are the first 6 of the habits as outlined by Steven Covey? Please describe each in five or less sentences. (20%)
史蒂文・科维（Steven Covey）概述的前 6 种习惯是什么？请用五句话以内描述每个习惯。
The 7th habit is to “sharpen the saw.” What is your personal ongoing plan to stay relevant as technology changes as the decades pass by? (30%)
Scrum Masters are to be “servant leaders.” Steven Covey demonstrates his “servant leader” ability through this book. A “servant leader” strives to ensure that “other people’s highest priority needs are being served. The best test, and difficult to administer, is: Do those served (followers) grow as persons? Do they, while being served, become healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, more likely themselves to become servant (leaders) … A servant-leader focuses primarily on the growth and well-being of people and the communities to which they belong. … The servant-leader shares power, puts the needs of others first and helps people develop and perform as highly as possible.” Basically, a true leader, as defined by the servant leader ideology, improves those that follow them. What is the most important item from this book that will help you improve others? (30%)
Scrum Master 将成为 “仆人式领导者”。史蒂文・科维（Steven Covey）通过这本书展示了他的 “仆人领袖” 能力。 “服务负责人” 致力于确保 “满足其他人的最高优先需求”。最好的测试且难以管理，是：被服务的人（追随者）会随着人的成长而成长吗？他们在得到服务时会变得更健康，更明智，更自由，更自治，更可能自己成为仆人（领导者）吗…… 仆人领导者主要关注人民及其所属社区的成长和福祉。 …… 仆人领导者分享权力，将他人的需求放在首位，并帮助人们尽可能地发展和表现。” 基本上，如仆人领导者思想所定义的那样，一个真正的领导者可以改善跟随他们的人。本书中最重要的是什么可以帮助您改善他人？
What did you learn from this homework assignment that will help you achieve your professional and/or personal goals? (10%)
您从这项家庭作业中学到了什么，可以帮助您实现职业和 / 或个人目标？