# Why ”communications” is important
(p. 61 PMBOK 6th ed)
“research shows that top project managers spend about 90% of their time on a project in communication”
Information from the Harvard Business Review on an MIT Study
With remarkable consistency, the data confirmed that communication indeed plays a critical role in building successful teams. In fact, we’ve found patterns of communication to be the most important predictor of a team’s success. Not only that, but they are as significant as all the other factors—individual intelligence, personality, skill, and the substance of discussions—combined.
…Successful teams share several defining characteristics:
- Everyone on team talks and listens in roughly equal measure; keeping contributions short and concise
- Members face one and other and their conversations and gestures are energetic.
- Members connect directly with one another; not just the team leader
- Members have direct communication with each other
- Members periodically go exploring outside of their team and bring back information
# Project Communications Management 项目沟通管理
“….includes the processes necessary to ensure that the information needs of the project and its stakeholders are met through development of artifacts and implementation of activities designed to achieve effective information exchange.”
Communication plans need to be updated as appropriate.
# Types of concepts for Communications Management 沟通管理的概念类型
- Written 书面的
- Spoken 口头的
- Formal or informal 正式或非正式
- Through gestures 通过手势
- Through media 通过媒体
- Choice of words 单词选择
# Communication Defined
Something imparted, interchanged, or transmitted
Communications should also include the expectation that the receiver understands the message in the way the sender intended.
# Communication Activities 交流活动
- Internal 内部的
- External 外部的
- Formal 正式的
- Informal 非正式的
- Hierarchical focus (up, down, lateral) 层次结构焦点（上，下，横向）
- Unofficial 非官方的
- Written and oral 书面和口头
# There are 2 parts to successful communication
(p. 362) Developing an appropriate communication. Based on: 建立适当的沟通。基于：
- Project needs 项目需求
- Stakeholder’s needs 利益相关者的需求
(p. 359) Carrying out the activities necessary to implement the communication strategy
# Communication Trends 趋势
- Inclusion of stakeholders in project reviews
- Inclusion of stakeholders in project meetings
- Increased use of social computing
- Multifaceted approaches to communication
- Embraces & selects from all technologies and respects
- Cultural 文化的
- Practical 实际的
- Personal preferences (Language, media, content and delivery) 个人喜好（语言，媒体，内容和交付）
# Plan Communications Management 计划沟通管理
“…the process of developing an appropriate approach and plan for project communications activities based on the information needs of each stakeholder or group, available organizational assets, and the needs of the project.”
Communications plans are to be reviewed regularly.
When communication planning is started Early in the project
# Communication Plan Inputs 沟通计划输入
- Project charter 项目章程
- Project management plan 项目管理计划
- Project documents 项目文档
- Requirements documentation 需求文档
- Stakeholder register 利益相关者登记册
- Enterprise environmental factors 企业环境因素
- Stakeholder risk thresholds 利益相关者风险阈值
- Geographic distribution of facilities and resources
# Plan Communication tools and techniques
Expert judgement/Stakeholders, especially customers and sponsors
专家判断 / 利益相关者，尤其是客户和赞助商
Communication Requirement Analysis plan
# Selection of Technology 技术选择
- Urgency 紧迫
- Reliability of channel 通道可靠性
- Ease of use 使用方便
- Sensitivity 敏感度
- Need for persistent documentation 需要永久性文件
# Communication Models
# “Simple basic sender/receiver communication model”
“简单的基本发送器 / 接收器通信模型”
# “Sample interactive communication model”
- Acknowledge 告知
- Feedback 反馈
Definition “noise”= “…any interference or barriers that might compromise the understanding of the message, such as distraction of the receiver, variations in the perceptions of receivers, or lack of the appropriate knowledge or interest.”
定义 “噪声” =“…… 可能影响消息理解的任何干扰或障碍，例如接收者的注意力分散，接收者的感知变化，或缺乏适当的知识或兴趣。”
# The sender is responsible for:
- Picking the right channel 选择正确的频道
- Transmission of the message 信息的传递
- Ensuring the information being communicated is clear and complete 确保所传达的信息清晰完整
- Confirming the message is correctly interpreted 确认消息已正确解释
# Cross-cultural communication
- Age 年龄
- Nationality 国籍
- Professional discipline 专业学科
- Ethnicity 种族
- Gender 性别
- Accent 口音
# Communication Methods 沟通方法
- Interactive (e.g. real time face-to-face one-on-one conversation)
- Push (like an e-mail that is sent out that no one can reply to)
- Pull (like e-learning)
# Communication Plans Output
- Communication requirements 沟通要求
- Frequency of communications 沟通频率
- Glossary of terms 专业术语
- Etc. (other types, guidelines & templates)
# Manage Communications
“… the process of ensuring timely and appropriate collection, creation, distribution, storage, retrieval, management, monitoring, and the ultimate disposition of project information.”
# Cool project documents
- Change log 变更记录
- Issues log 问题日志
- Lessons learned register 经验教训注册
- Risk report 风险报告
- Describes overall project risk 描述总体项目风险
- Summary information on identified individual risks
- Communicated to interested stakeholders
- Stakeholder Register 利益相关者登记册
# Work Performance Reports 工作绩效报告
These support decision making processes and monitoring and controlling.
Dashboards (visually displays key performance indicators, in an easy to quickly understand/easily-usable way - bv)
仪表板（以易于快速理解 / 易于使用的方式直观地显示关键性能指标）
Heat reports (a.k.a. “heat maps”)
Stop light charts
One cool use of heat charts I have heard of is tracking where customer’s eyes look when they are viewing products on a store shelf.
This lets marketing people know if their product’s packaging stand out. Also these can be used by web developers, in a similar way, to see how eyes respond to a screen’s design.
This is an isixsigma.com publication. This is a known repository of six sigma knowledge.
# Metrics 指标
Metrics is just a measurement, with no independent specific business value, without context. For example, if I told you your website sold $1,245 in widgets yesterday, is that good news, or, bad news? Given that $1,245 has no context, the $1,245 is a useless number.
指标只是一种度量，没有独立的特定业务价值，没有内容环境。例如，如果我告诉您您的网站昨天售出了 $1,245 的小部件，这是个好消息还是个坏消息？假设 $1,245 没有内容环境，则 $1,245 是无用的数字。
SMART Goals assign meaning to metrics. You can then know if you are on target, and if not, your metrics will indicate that (based on your goal), and can then assist you to understanding if you are getting better as you try to improve.
Caution: Metrics and goals will drive specific behaviors. Typically desired behaviors. But not always.
…“If you can measure it, you can manage it.” Source of quote: Anonymous
# Metrics Driven Process Improvement Implementation
Establish measurement. 建立度量。
- What do you want to measure? 您想要测量什么？
- What can you measure? 你能衡量什么？
- What is the potential cost/benefit of each measurement?
每次衡量的潜在成本 / 收益是多少？
- Carefully select the most valuable subset
- Implement measuring procedures
Establish SMART Goals 建立 SMART 目标
- Track for a reasonable amount of time (or, if possible use historical data) to understand what is currently happening
- Establish SMART goals based on business expectations and current environment
根据业务期望和当前环境建立 SMART 目标
- Track for a reasonable amount of time (or, if possible use historical data) to understand what is currently happening
Fix it 修理它
- PDCA, driven by metrics and SMART goals
PDCA，由指标和 SMART 目标驱动
- Redo PDCA until value of further improvement is not warranted.
- PDCA, driven by metrics and SMART goals
# Only Apply SMART Goals When…
仅在以下情况下应用 SMART 目标：
- People understand the importance to the business
- People have the resources and authority to manage business processes and functions that impact SMART goal related metrics (huge issue)
人们拥有管理影响 SMART 目标相关指标的业务流程和功能的资源和权力（大问题）
- Stakeholders who can positively impact ability for SMART goals to be:
能够对 SMART 目标产生积极影响的利益相关者是：
- Educated to understand the importance of meeting established SMART Goals
- Can be incented to achieve SMART goal targets
- Educated to understand the importance of meeting established SMART Goals
- SMART goals can be monitored and updated as time goes on to ensure they remain effective and drive efficient behaviors
- Conditions related to achieved SMART goals are monitored as time passes to ensure that conditions do not deteriorate.
# Metrics can drive bad behavior
Situation: I had a friend once, who who worked for a globally known and highly respected delivery company. He was in charge of 5 delivery trucks. Each truck driver had clearly stated goals for when all the packages in their trucks needed to be delivered by. My friend told me he had an issue one day when one of the trucks he was responsible for broke down.
我曾经有一个朋友，他为一家全球知名和备受尊敬的快递公司工作。 他负责 5 辆送货卡车。 每个卡车司机都明确规定了何时需要交付卡车上的所有包裹的目标。 我的朋友告诉我，有一天，他负责的一辆卡车抛锚了，他有一个问题。
Bad Behavior: None of the other 4 drivers, when asked, came to assist with the stranded packages. This was because the other 4 drivers knew that if they left their route, they would not make their delivery goals, and would therefore lose their monthly cash performance-incentive.
其他 4 名司机在被问及时，都没有来协助处理滞留的包裹。 这是因为其他 4 名司机知道，如果他们离开他们的路线，他们不会使他们的交付目标，因此将失去他们每月的现金绩效激励。
Lesson Learned: Metrics based goals need to be created in a way that they are adaptive (a.k.a can be changed or altered in unusual situations) to allow for situations like this.
# Metrics can drive unethical behaviors, especially in sales
Distribution of defective products to make “sales goals”
In the financial industry, alleged giving services to people they did not ask for “Wells Fargo (WFC) now says it has found a total of up to 3.5 million potentially fake bank and credit card accounts”
在金融行业，据称向没有要求的人提供服务，"富国银行（WFC）现在说，它已发现多达 350 万个潜在的假银行和信用卡账户"
5,300 Wells Fargo employees fired over 2 million phony accounts:
5，300 名富国银行员工解雇了 200 多万个虚假账户
Stop watching at 3:21 (1.3 M views)
Wells Fargo we’ve fixed it video commercial (1 minute/2018)
# Key Communication Skills
(pp. 384 - 385)
- Feedback 反馈
- Non-verbal 不用言辞表达
- Presentations 报告、演示
- Social media 社交媒体
- Placement 安排
- Damage control 损害控制
# Interpersonal & Team Skills – Huge!
- Active listening 积极倾听
- Conflict management 冲突管理
- Cultural awareness 文化意识
- Meeting management 会议管理
- Networking 联网
- Political awareness 政治意识
# Monitor Communications
Defined: “… the process of ensuring the information needs of the project and its stakeholders are met.” (p. 388)
Value: “…determines if the planned communications artifacts have had the desired effect of increasing or maintaining stakeholder’s support for the project’s deliverables and expected outcomes.” (p. 389)
You need to make sure the intended audience is getting the message in the intended way.
- Surveys 调查
- Lessons learned/retrospectives 经验教训 / 回顾
- Team observations 团队观察
- Reviewing the issues log 查看问题日志
- Stakeholder feedback 利益相关者反馈
# Project Management Plan Updates
- A change control process should be used when updating the communication plan, inside the project management plan.
- Communications management plan: updated with information to make new information communications more effective.
- Stakeholder engagement plan:
- Communication needs 沟通需求
- Why they are important to the project
# General Topics on Communication
# Number of communication paths
Comment: This is also called the “hand shake” formula.
这也称为 “握手” 公式。
- As the number of people engaged in a communication increases the number of potential interactions grows rapidly
- If you don’t manage how these interactions take place, communication will get out of control quickly
- The more people engaged in a communication, the more interactions, the more likely the message can be misinterpreted by someone.
- As the number increases it is harder to make sure everyone is involved
# 6 things to never discuss at work:
工作中永远不要讨论的 6 件事
via Travis Bradberry
- That you are job hunting 你在找工作
- Your political beliefs 你的政治信仰
- How much money you make 你赚多少钱
- That you hate your job 你讨厌你的工作
- What you or others do in private, in the bedroom 您或其他人在卧室里私下所做的事情
- That you think someone is incompetent 你认为某人没有能力
# PMBOK ON CONFLICT
P 349 (Project Resource Management Chapter)
- Withdraw/avoid 撤回 / 避免
- Smooth/accommodate 顺滑 / 适应
- Compromise/reconcile 妥协 / 调和
- Force/direct 强制 / 直接
- Collaborate/problem solve 协作 / 问题解决
# Harvard Business Review: How to disagree with your boss
- Explain that you have a different opinion and ask if you can voice it.
- Restate the original point of view or decision so it’s clear you understand it.
- Speak slowly and calmly
- State that you are adding your opinion because you support the best interests of the company
- Use facts as possible.
- Don’t use judgement words like “hasty,” “foolish,” etc.
请勿使用 “严肃”，“愚蠢” 等判断性词语。
- Have an alternative ready
# Ethos, Pathos, Logos: building credibility 树立信誉
- Ethos 气质
- is a Greek word meaning "character" that is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals of the communicator
- Pathos 动人
- when a communicator appeals to the emotions of the audience and elicits feelings that already reside in them.
- Logos 徽标
- when a communicator appeals to logic
Source = Wikipedia
# When you need something do not use “ASAP”
- ”ASAP” is an acronym that stands for as soon as possible
- It means different things to different people
- Always provide an exact date by which you need something
- The date can act like a trigger event to reach out to someone who is not responding (e.g. I asked for the document on October 1, and I never received it.)
日期就像触发事件一样，触及没有响应的人（例如，我在 10 月 1 日索要该文件，但我从未收到过该文件。）
# “What’s In It For Me” (A.K.A., WIIFM)
You are making an attempt to tell the receiver of your message why the communication is important from their perspective.
The idea is that by having people understand why it is important to them, they are more likely to take the action you want them to take.
# TED Talk
# “How Understanding Conflict Can Help Improve Our Lives”
27 K views 12 min
Starting a presentation with a story is a very powerful technique.
What was her story?
Conflict lies in:
- “Limited Resources” 有限的资源
- ”Unmet Needs” 未满足的需求
- “Different Values” 不同的价值观
What is the difference between a “need” vs. a “want?”
“需要” 与 “想要” 之间有什么区别？
Differences sort of inherent in the terms themselves.
A "need" is like you know in whatever manner you're doing to go on with your normal process.
Whereas a "want" is a more, maybe trivial is the wrong word, but less important , desire something you wanna kind of add to your life for your daily process.
而想要是更多，也许 “微不足道” 这个词用错了，但却不那么重要。一些你想要添加到你的生活为你的日常过程。
How will being able to separate out these two items make negotiations easier?
as you can compromise on what's, but you can't compromise on needs.
Do emotions get in the way of logical thinking?
yeah. Emotions do get the way of logical thinking when the victim is us, our people who are close to us,
What is empathy, what does it have to do with understanding emotions, and, why does displaying true empathy establish a good foundation for conflict resolution?
What are some good techniques to move a person from emotional thinking to logical thinking?
Trying to empathize with and validate their feelings in the situation.
# TED on conflict
2.6 M Views/14.56 Min
- Debate requires that we engage with the conflicting idea, directly, respectfully…
- The foundation of debate is rebuttal.
- People who disagree the most productively start by finding common ground
Why is “directly” confronting the issues important?
为什么 "直接" 面对这些问题很重要？
Because first of all, avoiding the issue doesn't help it. you know it's a band aid on the problem.
Directly confronting the issue brings about not only chance to resolve that issue but reach some kind of positive growth related to the issue.
Through directly confronting that we can reach the shared reality, which I can see is some of your other questions so.
What is a “shared reality?”
What starts the beginning of a “shared reality?”
是什么开启了 "共同现实" 的开始？
You will find in common ground with people you're debating with.
Because in order to actually persuade people, you need to sort of convince them of you and then sharing a reality of you.
Both having you know you find a place where you agree on the basic issue and build up from there to whatever the issue your argument is.
“Your only winning strategy is to engage with the best, clearest, least personal version of the idea. ” Why is engaging with the “least personal” approach so important?
"你唯一的制胜策略是参与最佳、最清晰、最不个人化的想法。为什么采用" 最不个人化 " 的方法如此重要？
The reason for the conversation, not the person's personality or treat, or whatever uh concerns the person personally.
The idea or the conversation is the focus. And it's best have that as the center of the conversation. so We can put benefit from it. And you can understand the person's point of view, and the person can also understand your point of view.
Why does submitting “ideas anonymously” work?
为什么提交 "匿名想法" 有效？
It takes away a certain level of a bias. You Limiting or judging in person from probably how the person looks or what you think of the person.
But when we don't know whoever is, when we take away the bias from our judgments or decisions, it gives us an opportunity, to the open minded to be free, to get the best.
And you'll be surprised that someone you least expected to give you a bright idea, we'll get give you the brightest idea.
What is “intellectual humility” and how can it help reduce conflict?
With that, makes you see beyond people's limitations and makes you see the best in people. It makes you bring on and welcome all ideas and then get the filter through and decide which will be best for the cost of a project or a particular situation.
带来并欢迎所有的想法，然后通过过滤并决定哪一个最适合一个项目或特定 UM 的成本的情况，
so that's definitely would let you is a good skill to possess as a leader or as a team play as well.
Because that's actually kind of a you know kind of a contributor to a more toxic style of debate where it becomes sort of uh uh more of an individuals of backing individuals.
when you remove your sense of ownership of the idea, you can evaluate the idea itself in a clear way.
# How to Manage A Web Design Project | Niswatch E04
# Assignment B
Dr. Covey’s “The 7 Habits of Highly Effect People” Essay Questions
# Purpose/Intent: 目的 / 意图
Scrum Masters are defined as “Servant Leaders.” An important attribute of Servant Leaders is they develop the skills and abilities of the people in their sphere of influence. This book will show you how to improve yourself as a leader, professionally, and as a human. And, once you gain comfort in improving yourself, you will be well positioned to grow the personal abilities of your team members. The idea of this assignment is to have you read, understand, and demonstrate that you can apply the lessons in this book while in a team leadership role. In addition to strengthening your leadership ability, this assignment is in direct support of employee development, which is a component of human resources. Human resources is a unit of this course.
Scrum Masters 被定义为 “仆人领袖”。仆人式领导者的一个重要属性是他们在势力范围内发展人民的技能和能力。本书将向您展示如何提高自己的领导才能，职业素养和作为人的能力。而且，一旦您在改善自己的能力上感到舒适，就可以很好地提高团队成员的个人能力。这项任务的目的是让您阅读，理解和证明您可以在担任团队领导角色时应用本书中的课程。除了增强领导能力外，这项工作还直接支持员工发展，这是人力资源的组成部分。人力资源是本课程的一部分。
BIO (as found on Amazon.com): Dr. Stephen R. Covey is a renowned leadership authority, teacher, organizational consultant, and co-founder of FranklinCovey Co. He is author of several international bestsellers, including The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, which has sold over 20 million copies. He was named one of TIME Magazine's 25 Most Influential Americans. Also, (as found on Wikipedia), he earned an MBA from Harvard.
Stephen R. Covey 博士是著名的领导机构，老师，组织顾问和 FranklinCovey Co. 的共同创始人。他是几本国际畅销书的作者，其中包括《高效人的七个习惯》，该书的销量已超过 2000 万册。他被《时代周刊》评选为 25 位最有影响力的美国人之一。另外，（在 Wikipedia 上找到），他获得了哈佛大学的 MBA 学位。
Time Estimate: Students indicate that it takes about 20 hours to read this book. They typically read it in English, though that is not required (it has been translated into over 20 languages) After you complete reading this book, I anticipate it will take about 2 to 3 hours to complete this written component of this assignment. I hope you will work on it for a bit, put it down, and come back once you think about it some more (and repeat this process).
Why I chose this book:
- Mr. Covey provides a great example of leadership, through example, in this book.
- Specifically, in habits 1-3, there are many hints as to how to be a great Scrum Master.
具体来说，在习惯 1-3 中，有很多关于如何成为一名出色的 Scrum Master 的提示。
- There are many tips on how to personally improve to get more of what you desire out of life.
- Mr. Covey demonstrates his excellent leadership skills in this book using Ethos (character), Pathos (emotion), and Logos (Logic). Just type in any of these three terms into Google, and you will find much information on these subjects. Also, I have read Wikipedia for these items, and they do a good job on these topics. Ethos, Pathos and Logos are the core of being accepted as credible and trusted.
Covey 先生在本书中使用了 Ethos（角色），Pathos（情感）和 Logos（逻辑）展示了他出色的领导才能。只需在 Google 中输入这三个术语中的任何一个，您就会发现有关这些主题的很多信息。另外，我已经阅读了 Wikipedia 中的这些项目，它们在这些主题上做得很好。 Ethos，Pathos 和 Logos 是被公认为可信和受信任的核心。
- This book has been translated into about 24 languages. International students may be able to read this book in their favorite language.
本书已被翻译成大约 24 种语言。国际学生可以用他们喜欢的语言阅读这本书。
- This book is easy to find, and can be purchased at a relatively low price. It is also found in most libraries. But, I do recommend buying it, and taking notes in it as you read it.
There will be no questions on exams from this book.
As for the minimum word count on your answers, when you answer a question, use as few words as possible. But, use just enough words to get your meaning across. I say this because using as few words as possible to deliver your meaning is a skill that will help you succeed in business. Compact, concise, meaningful e-mails get read, and then acted on. Long and dull e-mails that take a while to get to the point do not get read. In fact, they tend to get ignored, and the author’s future communications will tend to be ignored too. What this means in this instance is that I am expecting for you to read the book and understand what the principles that Covey shares mean to you. And, establishing a minimum word count is not a good way to determine if you derived meaning from the book (or not).
至于回答的最少单词数，当您回答问题时，请使用尽可能少的单词。但是，只用足够多的词来表达您的意思即可。我之所以这样说，是因为使用尽可能少的单词来表达您的意思是一项可以帮助您成功开展业务的技能。阅读紧凑，简洁，有意义的电子邮件，然后采取行动。冗长而乏味的电子邮件需要花费一些时间才能到达目的。实际上，它们往往会被忽略，作者未来的交流也将被忽略。在这种情况下，这意味着我希望您阅读本书并了解 Covey 所分享的原则对您而言意味着什么。而且，确定最小字数不是确定您是否从书中得出含义的好方法。
# The Assignment:
Please read the questions below before you read the book. Please copy/paste the questions found here into a MS Word document, answer each question, then post your MS Word document in Blackboard. The idea is to answer the 5 following questions in an essay format (using as few words as possible). The contribution of each question to your score for this assignment immediately follows the essay prompt in parenthesis.
在阅读本书之前，请先阅读以下问题。请将此处找到的问题复制 / 粘贴到 MS Word 文档中，回答每个问题，然后将您的 MS Word 文档张贴在 Blackboard 中。想法是以论文形式（使用尽可能少的单词）回答以下五个问题。每个问题对您本次作业分数的贡献都紧随括号中的论文提示。
What personal change do you want to make to become more effective in your professional and personal life? (10%)
What are the first 6 of the habits as outlined by Steven Covey? Please describe each in five or less sentences. (20%)
史蒂文・科维（Steven Covey）概述的前 6 种习惯是什么？请用五句话以内描述每个习惯。
The 7th habit is to “sharpen the saw.” What is your personal ongoing plan to stay relevant as technology changes as the decades pass by? (30%)
Scrum Masters are to be “servant leaders.” Steven Covey demonstrates his “servant leader” ability through this book. A “servant leader” strives to ensure that “other people’s highest priority needs are being served. The best test, and difficult to administer, is: Do those served (followers) grow as persons? Do they, while being served, become healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, more likely themselves to become servant (leaders) … A servant-leader focuses primarily on the growth and well-being of people and the communities to which they belong. … The servant-leader shares power, puts the needs of others first and helps people develop and perform as highly as possible.” Basically, a true leader, as defined by the servant leader ideology, improves those that follow them. What is the most important item from this book that will help you improve others? (30%)
Scrum Master 将成为 “仆人式领导者”。史蒂文・科维（Steven Covey）通过这本书展示了他的 “仆人领袖” 能力。 “服务负责人” 致力于确保 “满足其他人的最高优先需求”。最好的测试且难以管理，是：被服务的人（追随者）会随着人的成长而成长吗？他们在得到服务时会变得更健康，更明智，更自由，更自治，更可能自己成为仆人（领导者）吗…… 仆人领导者主要关注人民及其所属社区的成长和福祉。 …… 仆人领导者分享权力，将他人的需求放在首位，并帮助人们尽可能地发展和表现。” 基本上，如仆人领导者思想所定义的那样，一个真正的领导者可以改善跟随他们的人。本书中最重要的是什么可以帮助您改善他人？
What did you learn from this homework assignment that will help you achieve your professional and/or personal goals? (10%)
您从这项家庭作业中学到了什么，可以帮助您实现职业和 / 或个人目标？