# Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 工作分解结构

定义:
“A hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables.” (PMBOK 6th Ed. P. 726)
项目团队要执行的总工作范围的分层分解,以完成项目目标并创建所需的可交付成果。

  • Organizes work in hierarchy format
    以层次结构格式组织工作
  • For each level down, tasks have a more limited scope, that is they are more narrowly defined
    对于每个级别向下,任务的范围更有限,也就是说,它们的定义更狭窄
  • Can be either pictorial (like an organizational hierarchy chart) or in an outline like format
    可以是图片(如组织结构层次结构图表),也可以是大纲(如格式)

# Why is the WBS Useful?

  • Documents what needs to get done.
    记录需要完成的工作。
  • Organizes work.
    组织工作。
  • Great tool to show people what you have in mind.
    伟大的工具,向人们展示你的想法。

# What the WBS Does For You

  • Budget 预算
    • Allocate Labor Expense 分配人工费用
    • Allocate Non-Labor Expense 分配非人工费用
  • Time Line 时间线
    • Defining What to do First 定义先做什么
    • Determining Work Sequence 确定工作顺序
  • Responsibility Matrix 责任矩阵
    • Assigning Ownership 分配所有权

# Work Package

“The work defined at the lowest level of the work breakdown structure for which cost and duration are estimated and managed.” (PMBOK 6th ed. P.726)
在工作分解结构的最低级别定义的工作,其成本和工期被估算和管理。

At the lowest level of your WBS you’ll find the work packages.
在 WBS 的最低级别,您会用到工作包。

This represents the components of the project that will be managed as separate tasks.
这表示将作为单独任务管理的项目组件。

They are not ordered when looking left to right on the pictorial WBS. At the same level of decomposition in the outline format, there is no order. This activity is left to the project schedule.
在图片 WBS 上从左向右看时,它们没有顺序。 在大纲格式的相同分解级别上,没有顺序。 该活动留在项目进度表中。

Their size is dictated by the duration that the project manager can manage.
它们的大小由项目经理可以管理的持续时间决定。

# WBS Examples

Barn Defined:

A barn is a structure that farmers use to hose cows, horses etc. in. They also keep their farm equipment in their barns; like tractors etc.

# WBS; Outline Form 大纲式

Barn Construction
	1.1.0.    Foundation
		1.1.1     Excavation*
		1.1.2     Footers & Slab*
	2.1.0.    Structure
		2.1.1     Frame & Roof*
		2.1.2     Siding*

* These are work packages

# WBS; Pictoral Form 画报式

The pictorial form of the WBS, for a project of anything larger than a very small project, will:
对于任何大于很小项目的项目,WBS 的图形形式都将:

  • Likely not fit on a sheet of paper, or,
    可能不适合放在一张纸上,或者
  • It will be too small to read on a PC screen
    太小了,无法在 PC 屏幕上阅读
    But, in terms of a nice way to learn about WBSs, it works quite well. So, for the remainder of this presentation, the pictorial form will be used.
    但是,它确实是学习 WBS 的一种好方法。

# Decompose; Class Question 分解;类问题

It means each level down is more subdivided than the previous level.
这意味着每个下级都比上一个级别更细分。

The result of all this decomposing is the list of work packages that you will want to manage to.
所有这些分解的结果都是要管理的工作包列表。

Decomposition 分解
“A technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts” (PMBOK 6th ed p. 704)
一种技术,可以将项目范围和项目可交付成果,划分并细分为更小、更易于管理的部分

# WBS is Used in Creating...

# Responsibility matrix 责任矩阵

WhoResponsibility
TomExcavation
CindyFooters & Slab
BullFrame & Roof
ArunSiding

# Work Package Based Estimating 基于工作包的估算

TaskCost
Excavation$250K
Footers & Slab$750K
Frame & Roof$175K
Siding$50K

# Schedule Matrix 进度矩阵

#Tasks (in order)RequiresWhoDuration in days
1Perform ExcavationCindy15
2Set footers and slab1Tom2
3Build Frame & Roof2Bull1
4Siding3Arun1
2021-01-012021-01-032021-01-052021-01-072021-01-092021-01-112021-01-132021-01-152021-01-172021-01-19Cindy           Tom      Bull ArunPerform ExcavationSet footers and slabBuild Frame & RoofSidingGantt Chart

# WBS Dictionary

Behind the items in the WBS is something called the WBS dictionary
WBS 的项目背后是一种叫做 WBS 字典的东西

It contains detailed information on each item in the WBS (e.g. budget etc.), including work packages.
它包含 WBS 中每个项目的详细信息(例如预算等),包括工作包。

“A document that provides detailed deliverable, activity, and scheduling information about each component in the work breakdown structure” (PMBOK P. 726)
一个文档,提供了 WBS 工作分解结构中,每个组件的详细可交付性、活动和计划信息。

# Hints

# How to create a WBS

# Work Package Points

PMs typically don’t set up the cost allocation methodology – get help
PMs 通常不设置成本分配方法 – 获取帮助

Could be direct, indirect, capital, expense, etc.
可能是直接的、间接的、资本的、费用等。

There are Sarbanes-Oxley implications on this - take this seriously.
Sarbanes-Oxley 对此有影响 - 认真对待这一点。

Share billing rates with team members at your own peril
与团队成员共享计费费率,风险自担

# Summary

The WBS Provides Input to…

  • Responsibility matrix 责任矩阵
  • Schedule building 进度构建
  • Work package based estimating 基于工作包的估算
  • Other processes too

# Design Thinking

# Integration Project Management 综合项目管理

Integration Project Management is…
”…the processes and activities to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate” various Project Management activities.” (p.69)
确定、定义、合并、统一和协调各种项目管理活动的流程和活动

Main ideas…

  • Resource allocations
    资源分配
  • Balancing competing needs
    平衡竞争需求
  • Examining any alternatives
    检查其他选择
  • Tailoring
    定制
  • Managing cross area dependencies
    管理跨区域依赖性

Key concepts (p.72) 关键概念

  • Coordinate deliverables
    协调可交付成果
  • Develop project plan
    制定项目计划
  • Ensuring the right resources are accessible to the team.
    确保团队可以访问正确的资源。
  • Monitor and control to keep project plan viable
    进行监控以确保项目计划的可行性
  • Oversee changes to project plan
    监督项目计划的变更
  • Keep the project on track
    保持项目进度
  • Communicating with stakeholders (especially actual project vs. expected)
    与利益相关者沟通(尤其是实际项目与预期项目)

Emergent Changes (p.73) 紧急变更

  • Automated tools (MS Project, Jira, etc.)
    自动化工具(MS Project,Jira 等)
  • Expanding roles of the PM
    PM 的扩展作用
  • Agile + PM = Hybrid
    敏捷 + PM = 混合

# Develop Project Charter 制定项目章程

“…the process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organization resources to project activities.” (p. 75)
“… 制定文档的过程,该文档正式授权项目的存在,并为项目经理提供将组织资源应用于项目活动的权限。”
Usually internally initiated, and written by the PM.
通常由内部发起,由 PM 编写

# Statement Of Work 工作陈述

A contract for going outside the company or organization.
公司或组织之外的合同。

# PM Charter PM 许可

The PM Charter establishes the relationship between the performing and requesting organization. (p. 77)
PM 许可,建立执行和请求组织之间的关系。

# Business Case Main Points (p.77) 商业案例要点

  • Idea
    理念
  • Cost justification (NPV)
    成本合理
  • Due date
    截止日期

# Business Case Considerations (p.78) 商业案例考虑

  • Market demand
    市场需求
  • Organizational need
    组织需求
  • Customer request
    顾客要求
  • Technology advancements
    技术进步
  • Legal requirements
    法律要求
  • Ecological/social impacts
    生态 / 社会影响

# Agreements (p.78) 协议

  • Service level agreement(SLA): Internal document.(If you can’t get one, just expect people not to live up to expectations)
    服务水平协议(SLA):内部文件。
    (如果您无法获得该文件,只能指望人们不能达到期望)

  • Memorandums of understanding
    谅解备忘录

  • Letters of agreements
    协议书

  • Verbal promises
    口头承诺

    • Trust
      信任
    • Miss-remembering
      遗忘
    • Altering terms during execution
      执行期间更改条款

# Expert Judgement (p.79) 专家判断

Vision implementation
愿景实施

Risk identification
风险识别

Technical knowledge
技术知识

Organizational strategy/alignment
组织策略 / 调整

# Data Gathering 数据收集

Brain Storming 头脑风暴


Focus groups 专门小组

Interviews 采访

Design Thinking 设计思维

# Interpersonal Team Skills 人际交往能力

Meeting management
会议管理

  • PAL(Purpose, Agenda, Length)
    目的,议程,长度
  • Start on time
    准时开始
  • Minutes
    分钟
  • Action Items/Follow Up
    动作项目 / 跟进

# Develop Project Charter Outputs 开发项目许可输出

(p.81)

  • Purpose of the project or effort
    项目目的或努力
  • SMART goals/KPIs
    SMART 目标 / KPIs
  • High level requirements
    高水平要求
    • What is included
      包含什么
    • What is not included
      不包含什么
  • Key deliverables
    主要成果
  • Known risks
    已知风险
  • Due dates
    截止日期
  • Key customer identification (stakeholders)
    关键客户标识(利益相关者)
  • Definition of success
    成功的定义
  • ID of Project Manager and who is “sponsor”
    项目经理的 ID,谁是 “发起人”
  • Assumptions
    假设条件
  • Signature of sponsor
    保荐人签名
  • Cost/Benefit (taken from business case)
    成本 / 收益(摘自业务案例)

# Develop Project Management Plan 制定项目管理计划

(p.82)

Friendly Reminder:
友情提醒:
The Project Plan identifies how the project is to be: (P.83)
项目计划确定了项目的目标:

  • Executed 已执行
  • Monitored and controlled 监视与控制
  • Closed 关闭

# Project management plan contains… 项目管理计划包括

  • Project charter (p. 83)
    项目章程
  • Environmental factors (p.84)
    环境因素(第 84 页)
  • Pertinent information about the organization (culture etc.) (p. 84)
    有关组织的相关信息(文化等)
  • Governance (p.84)
    治理方式
  • Available resources (p. 84)
    可用资源

# Operational Process Assets 业务流程资产

(p.84)

  • Change control procedure
    变更控制程序
  • Monitor/control processes
    监控程序
  • Informational repository (lessons learned Without an AI front end, these tend to be useless )
    信息库(经验教训 没有AI前端,这些往往毫无用处
  • Templates
    范本

# Gather Requirements 需求收集

  • Brainstorm
    头脑风暴
  • Checklists
    清单
  • Focus groups
    专门小组
  • interviews
    面试

The checklist manifesto:

项目需求收集方法:

  1. Understand the need/establish metrics and goals
    了解需求 / 建立指标和目标
  2. Understand the constraints
    了解约束
  3. What do I need to know?
    我需要知道些什么?
  4. Who can provide the above information?
    谁可以提供上述信息?
  5. What techniques will I use to collect the information?
    我将使用什么技术来收集信息?
  6. When will the information be collected?
    什么时候收集信息?
  7. What is needed to collect the information?
    收集信息需要什么

# Questions

# Turn a group of diverse strangers into a team

将一群不同的陌生人变成一个团队

Amy Edmondson: How to turn a group of strangers into a team | TED Talk

# BIO:

(WIKIPEDIA) Amy C. Edmondson is a Professor of Leadership and Management at the Harvard Business School, who studies human interactions that lead to the creation of successful enterprises that contribute to the betterment of society. She has been recognized by the biannual Thinkers50 global ranking of management thinkers in 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2017. She studies teaming, psychological safety, and leadership. Her articles have been published numerous academic and management outlets, including Harvard Business Review, Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Journal and California Management Review.

艾米・C・埃德蒙森(Amy C. Edmondson)是哈佛商学院的领导力和管理学教授,她研究人与人之间的互动,这些互动促使人们创建成功的企业,从而为改善社会做出贡献。在 2011、2013、2015 和 2017 年,她被管理思想家每半年两次的《Thinkers50》全球排名所认可。她研究团队合作,心理安全和领导力。她的文章已在许多学术和管理领域发表,包括《哈佛商业评论》,《行政科学季刊》,《管理学院学报》和《加利福尼亚管理评论》

# Background for this TED Talk:

Teaming is “coordinating and collaborating with people across boundaries of all kinds -- expertise, distance, time zone … to get work done.”
团队合作是 “与跨越各种边界的人员进行协调和协作 - 专业知识,距离,时区…… 以完成工作。”

The Issue: “With 24/7 global fast-paced operations, crazy shifting schedules and ever-narrower expertise, more and more of us have to work with different people (specialties, cultures, languages, etc.) all the time to get our work done. We (no longer) have the luxury of stable teams.”
问题是:“随着全球 24/7 全天候快节奏的运营,疯狂的日程安排和越来越狭窄的专业知识,我们越来越多的人不得不一直与不同的人(专业,文化,语言等)合作,以获取我们的完成工作。我们(不再)拥有稳定的团队。”

Background for question number 6:
问题 6 的背景:

When problem solving, a huge barrier to success is something called “paralysis by analysis.” The translation for these few words is that given a problem or an issue, there are times when a human, or a team of humans, will spend a vast amount of time examining the problem, and never accomplishing anything (except for further analysis). A great value of PDCA removes the expectation of being 100% right on the first attempt. This means the team has the chance of putting out at least a partial solution for a problem fast, the ability to learn from a partial solution, and the upfront expectation with stakeholders that the team’s effort to solve a particular problem will be a learning event (rather than a perfect fix on the first attempt).
解决问题时,成功的巨大障碍是所谓的 “分析瘫痪”。这几个词的翻译是,给定一个问题或一个问题,有时一个人或一组人将花费大量时间检查问题,而从不完成任何事情(除非进行进一步分析)。 PDCA 的巨大价值消除了初次尝试时 100%正确的期望。这意味着团队有机会快速提出问题的至少部分解决方案,有能力从部分解决方案中学习,以及与利益相关者的共同期望,即团队为解决特定问题所做的努力将是一次学习活动(而不是第一次尝试的完美解决方案)。

# Questions for based on the video:

  1. How are the teams she described similar to IT Project Teams in industry today?
    她描述的团队与当今行业的 IT 项目团队有何相似之处?

    So what's "teaming"? Teaming is teamwork on the fly. It's coordinating and collaborating with people across boundaries of all kinds -- expertise, distance, time zone, you name it -- to get work done.
    那么什么是 “团队合作”? 团队合作是快速的团队合作。 它是与 跨各种边界的 人员进行协调和协作 - 专长,距离,时区,您可以将其命名 - 以完成工作。
    Sports teams embody the definition of a team, the formal definition. It's a stable, bounded, reasonably small group of people who are interdependent in achieving a shared outcome.
    运动队体现了团队的定义, 即正式的定义。 这是一群稳定,有界,相当小的人 ,他们相互依存以实现共同的目标。
    You have to get different expertise at different times, you don't have fixed roles, you don't have fixed deliverables, you're going to be doing a lot of things that have never been done before, and you can't do it in a stable team.
    您必须在不同的时间获得不同的专业知识, 没有固定的角色,没有固定的可交付成果, 您将要做许多以前从未做过的事情, 并且您无法做在一个稳定的团队中。

  2. What are the key learnings from this video that you can use in strengthening a heterogeneous (highly diverse) project team?
    您可以从此视频中学到哪些主要知识,以帮助他们加强异构(高度多样化)的项目团队?

    When teaming works, you can be sure that some leaders, leaders at all levels, have been crystal clear that they don't have the answers. Let's call this "situational humility."
    我想说一句话,这是领导才能,但是让我更具体一些。 在进行团队合作时, 您可以确定某些领导者,各个级别的领导者都明确表示他们没有答案。 我们称其为 “情境谦卑”。
    We don't know how to do it. You can be sure, as I said before, people were very curious, and this situational humility combined with curiosity creates a sense of psychological safety that allows you take risks with strangers, because let's face it: it's hard to speak up, right? It's hard to ask for help.
    谦虚是适当的。 我们不知道该怎么做。 您可以肯定,就像我之前说的那样,人们非常好奇, 这种处境谦卑 加上好奇心 会产生一种心理上的安全感 ,让您与陌生人一起冒险, 因为让我们面对 现实吧:很难说出来,对吗?很难寻求帮助。
    It's hard to offer an idea that might be a stupid idea if you don't know people very well. You need psychological safety to do that. They overcame what I like to call the basic human challenge: it's hard to learn if you already know. And unfortunately, we're hardwired to think we know. And so we've got to remind ourselves -- and we can do it -- to be curious; to be curious about what others bring. And that curiosity can also spawn a kind of generosity of interpretation.
    如果您不太了解别人 ,很难提出一个可能是愚蠢的主意的想法。您需要心理安全才能做到这一点。 他们克服了我所说的基本人类挑战: 如果您已经知道,则很难学习。 不幸的是,我们很难认为我们知道。 因此,我们必须提醒自己 - 并且我们可以做到 - 保持好奇心; 对别人带来的东西感到好奇。 好奇心也可以产生一种慷慨的解释。
    Abraham Lincoln said once, "I don't like that man very much. I must get to know him better." Think about that -- I don't like him, that means I don't know him well enough. It's extraordinary. This is the mindset, I have to say, this is the mindset you need for effective teaming.
    亚伯拉罕・林肯曾经说过: “我不太喜欢那个人。我必须加深对他的了解。” 考虑一下 - 我不喜欢他,这意味着我不太了解他。 非常了不起 我必须说, 这是心态 ,这是有效组队所需的心态。
    To get there, I think there's no better advice than this: look to your left, look to your right. How quickly can you find the unique talents, skills and hopes of your neighbor, and how quickly, in turn, can you convey what you bring? Because for us to team up to build the future we know we can create that none of us can do alone, that's the mindset we need.
    为了达到这个目标, 我认为没有比这更好的建议了: 向左看,向右看。 你能多快地找到你的邻居 所拥有的独特才华、 技能和愿景, 又能多快地传达出 你想要传递的信息? 因为对于我们来说,为了建立一个 我们知道可以通过集体, 而非个人所能创造的未来, 这就是我们需要的心态。

  3. At an individual level, do you have any experiences in being a member, or leader, of a heterogeneous team? If the team was successful, what contributed to this?
    在个人层面上,您是否有担任异类团队成员或领导的经验?如果团队成功了,这有什么贡献?

  4. If a team leader says I don’t have the answer, how do they maintain respect; or what else should they say?
    如果团队负责人说我没有答案,那么他们如何保持尊重?或者他们还应该说些什么?

  5. For one of these diverse teams, that is expected to make significant contributions, what environment do leaders need to establish for their team members?
    对于预计将做出重大贡献的这些多元化团队之一,领导者需要为其团队成员建立什么样的环境?

  6. While I was watching this video, I thought of a few Scrum ideas; fail fast and iterative development. Also, there is a topic in process improvement called Plan, Do, Check, Act/Adjust (for an excellent discussion on PDCA, I highly recommend you go to: Plan - Do - Check - Adjust/Act (PDCA) Cycle in Lean-Agile. Also a key point of PDCA is after you finish the “A” part you go right back to “P”). Do you see the same similarities between what the successful rescuers did and these concepts as I do?
    在观看此视频时,我想到了一些混乱的想法;快速迭代失败。此外,过程改进中还有一个主题,称为计划,执行,检查,操作 / 调整。另外,PDCA 的关键是完成 “A” 部分后,您将立即回到 “P”。您是否像我一样看到成功的援救者所做的与这些概念相同的相似之处?

# Quiz

  1. Integration management is: the processes and activities to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate” various Project Management activities.”

    集成管理是识别,定义,组合,统一和协调 “各种项目管理活动” 的过程和活动。

  2. Develop risk management is: the process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organization resources to project activities.”

    The definition is for Develop project charter
    制定项目章程是制定文档的过程,该文档正式授权项目的存在并为项目经理提供将组织资源应用于项目活动的权限。”

  3. If you are a small company, with only 1 project to consider, and the NPV of that project is +10,000.

    • do the project
    • don’t do the project

    如果您是一家小型公司,只考虑一个项目,那么该项目的 NPV 为 + 10,000。

  4. Gathering data for requirements can include:

    • Brain Storming 头脑风暴
    • Focus groups 专门小组
    • Interviews 面谈
    • Design Thinking 设计思维

    收集需求数据可以包括

  5. Brainstorming is the idea that when many people meet, and share ideas, that better ideas, and maybe unique ideas, can be generated.

    头脑风暴是一种想法,当许多人见面并分享想法时,就会产生更好的想法,甚至可能是独特的想法。