# Integration Project Management 综合项目管理

Integration Project Management is…
”…the processes and activities to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate” various Project Management activities.” (p.69)

Main ideas…

  • Resource allocations
  • Balancing competing needs
  • Examining any alternatives
  • Tailoring
  • Managing cross area dependencies

Key concepts (p.72) 关键概念

  • Coordinate deliverables
  • Develop project plan
  • Ensuring the right resources are accessible to the team.
  • Monitor and control to keep project plan viable
  • Oversee changes to project plan
  • Keep the project on track
  • Communicating with stakeholders (especially actual project vs. expected)

Emergent Changes (p.73) 紧急变更

  • Automated tools (MS Project, Jira, etc.)
    自动化工具(MS Project,Jira 等)
  • Expanding roles of the PM
    PM 的扩展作用
  • Agile + PM = Hybrid
    敏捷 + PM = 混合

# Develop Project Charter 制定项目章程

“…the process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organization resources to project activities.” (p. 75)
“… 制定文档的过程,该文档正式授权项目的存在,并为项目经理提供将组织资源应用于项目活动的权限。”
Usually internally initiated, and written by the PM.
通常由内部发起,由 PM 编写

# Statement Of Work 工作陈述

A contract for going outside the company or organization.

# PM Charter PM 许可

The PM Charter establishes the relationship between the performing and requesting organization. (p. 77)
PM 许可,建立执行和请求组织之间的关系。

# Business Case Main Points (p.77) 商业案例要点

  • Idea
  • Cost justification (NPV)
  • Due date

# Business Case Considerations (p.78) 商业案例考虑

  • Market demand
  • Organizational need
  • Customer request
  • Technology advancements
  • Legal requirements
  • Ecological/social impacts
    生态 / 社会影响

# Agreements (p.78) 协议

  • Service level agreement(SLA): Internal document.(If you can’t get one, just expect people not to live up to expectations)

  • Memorandums of understanding

  • Letters of agreements

  • Verbal promises

    • Trust
    • Miss-remembering
    • Altering terms during execution

# Expert Judgement (p.79) 专家判断

Vision implementation

Risk identification

Technical knowledge

Organizational strategy/alignment
组织策略 / 调整

# Data Gathering 数据收集

Brain Storming 头脑风暴

Focus groups 专门小组

Interviews 采访

Design Thinking 设计思维

# Interpersonal Team Skills 人际交往能力

Meeting management

  • PAL(Purpose, Agenda, Length)
  • Start on time
  • Minutes
  • Action Items/Follow Up
    动作项目 / 跟进

# Develop Project Charter Outputs 开发项目许可输出


  • Purpose of the project or effort
  • SMART goals/KPIs
    SMART 目标 / KPIs
  • High level requirements
    • What is included
    • What is not included
  • Key deliverables
  • Known risks
  • Due dates
  • Key customer identification (stakeholders)
  • Definition of success
  • ID of Project Manager and who is “sponsor”
    项目经理的 ID,谁是 “发起人”
  • Assumptions
  • Signature of sponsor
  • Cost/Benefit (taken from business case)
    成本 / 收益(摘自业务案例)

# Develop Project Management Plan 制定项目管理计划


Friendly Reminder:
The Project Plan identifies how the project is to be: (P.83)

  • Executed 已执行
  • Monitored and controlled 监视与控制
  • Closed 关闭

# Project management plan contains… 项目管理计划包括

  • Project charter (p. 83)
  • Environmental factors (p.84)
    环境因素(第 84 页)
  • Pertinent information about the organization (culture etc.) (p. 84)
  • Governance (p.84)
  • Available resources (p. 84)

# Operational Process Assets 业务流程资产


  • Change control procedure
  • Monitor/control processes
  • Informational repository (lessons learned Without an AI front end, these tend to be useless )
    信息库(经验教训 没有AI前端,这些往往毫无用处
  • Templates

# Gather Requirements 需求收集

  • Brainstorm
  • Checklists
  • Focus groups
  • interviews

The checklist manifesto:


  1. Understand the need/establish metrics and goals
    了解需求 / 建立指标和目标
  2. Understand the constraints
  3. What do I need to know?
  4. Who can provide the above information?
  5. What techniques will I use to collect the information?
  6. When will the information be collected?
  7. What is needed to collect the information?

# Direct and Manage Project Work 指导和管理项目工作


Direct and Manage Project Work is the process of leading and performing the work defined in the project management plan and implementing approved changes to achieve the project’s objectives.

The key benefit provides overall management of the project work deliverables, and thus improves the probability of project success.

Involves… 包括

  • Planned project activities to complete project deliverables
  • Accomplish established objectives

(p. 92)

The Project Manager directs the performance of the planned project activities and manages the various technical and organizational interfaces and through monitor-and-control, applies the necessary guidance to ensure the project remains on track.

# Project Documents 项目文件

(p. 92)

  • Requirements 需求
  • Change requests 变更需求
  • Lessons learned register 经验教训注册
  • Milestone list 里程碑清单
  • Project communications: 项目交流
    • Action items 行动项目
    • Status reports 状态报告
    • Issue logs 问题日志
    • Assumptions 假设
    • Known risks 已知风险
    • Minutes 分钟
    • Etc.

(p. 93)

  • Project schedule (HUGE!) 项目进度表(巨大!)
  • Requirements trackability matrix (RTM; annoying but necessary) 需求可跟踪性矩阵(RTM;烦人但有必要)
    Example RTM can link the non technical to technical requirements 示例 RTM 可以将非技术要求与技术要求联系起来
  • Risk register (huge! - see final course project for details) 风险登记册(巨大!- 有关详细信息,请参阅最终课程项目)

# Deliverables 可交付成果

(p. 95)
“a deliverable is any unique and verifiable product, result, or capacity to perform a service…”

This is an excellent test question!

What you deliver to your customer!

# Issue Log – You’ll need to use this 问题日志


  • Topic – what the issue is 主题–问题是什么
  • Who identified it 谁识别了
  • When it was discovered 被发现时
  • Priority (high, low, medium -> “Show stopper”) 优先级(高,低,中 ->“显示挡块”)
  • Who owns the resolution 谁拥有决议
  • What happens if the issue is not resolved 如果问题未解决,该怎么办?
  • Target closure date 目标截止日期
    • Dates of Status/closure 状态 / 关闭日期
    • Use “alt/enter” to build a new line on an excel spreadsheet. 使用 “ alt /enter” 在 excel 电子表格上建立新行。
    • Date every entry, and have a name on every entry 为每个条目加上日期,并在每个条目上都有一个名称

# Issue vs. Risk 问题与风险

Risk 风险
something good or bad that might happen
Issue 问题
a known activity that must be dealt with, may be the result of a risk item manifesting itself.

# Change requests – why?

(p. 96)

Modify: 调整

  • project policies 项目政策
  • Scope 范围
  • Any baselined document 任何基准文件
  • Cost 成本
  • Budget 预算
  • Quality demand 质量要求
  • Product results 产品结果
  • Requirements 要求

When: 什么时候

  • Corrective action 纠正措施
  • Preventative action 预防措施
  • Defect repair 缺陷修复
  • Updates 更新
  • New information 新讯息

# Manage Project Knowledge

(p. 98)
“...is the process of using existing knowledge and creating new knowledge to achieve the project’s objectives and contribute to organizational learning.”

# 2 Types of Knowledge

(p. 100)

Explicit knowledge (words, pictures, & numbers can express them) 明确的知识(单词,图片和数字可以表达它们)
  • Relatively easy to capture 比较容易捕捉
  • Relatively easy to share 比较容易分享
Tacit (Beliefs, insights, ability & experience) 默契(信念,见解,能力和经验)
  • Hard to share 很难分享
  • Stored in minds (typically experts) 储存在头脑中(通常是专家)
  • Shared through conversations 通过对话分享
  • (like feelings) (喜欢的感觉)

# Observations on Tacit Knowledge 隐性知识观察

  • Stories shared at the right time to deliver knowledge

  • First hand experience is trusted more

  • Expert can gauge what learner is ready to learn

  • Expert can alter sequence of learning to optimize delivery

  • People can use body language to express important points

  • People can be excellent source of on-demand chunks of knowledge

# Methods to Share Knowledge 分享知识的方法

(p. 103)

  • Networking
  • Communities of practice
  • Meetings
  • Work shadowing
  • Seminars/conferences
  • Workshops/training/interactive-learning
  • Story telling (huge!)

# Monitor and Control Project Work 监控项目工作

(p. 105)

…track, review, & report project progress compared to plan.
… 跟踪,审查和报告与计划相比的项目进度。

Allows stakeholders to understand the current state of the project, to recognize the actions taken to address any key performance issues, and to have visibility into the future project status with cost and schedule forecasts.

# Perform Integrated Change Control 执行综合变更控制

(p. 113)

“…is the process of reviewing all change requests; approving changes and managing changes to deliverables, project documents, and the project management plan; and communicating the decisions” to the appropriate stakeholders.
“…… 是审查所有变更请求的过程;批准变更并管理对可交付成果,项目文档和项目管理计划的变更;并将决策传达给适当的利益相关者。

it allows for documented changes within the project to be considered in an integrated manner while addressing overall project risk, which often arises from changes made without consideration of the overall objectives or plans.

# 2 failures to react to change, or react fast enough

# The Challenge space shuttle disaster.

The unexpected change was a very cold launch pad:

Challenger: A Rush To Launch

Jan/’85 - 53 degree Fahrenheit temperature allowed primary “o” ring to fail one year earlier (Allan McDonald) Director of Rocket Booster Project @5:36 min)

# Chicago Marathon Death

“CHICAGO, Oct. 7 — As temperatures soared into the upper 80s, hundreds of runners in the Chicago marathon fell ill and at least one died on Sunday, prompting officials here to halt the annual race for the first time in its 30-year history.”*

Details (optional viewing)

# The performance integrated change control process…

(p. 115)

“is conducted from project start through completion and is the ultimate responsibility of the project manager.”

Change control process:
(p. 119)

  • Identify 识别
  • Document 文件
  • Decide on changes ;
    “Review changes, approving, rejecting, deferring, or making other decisions about changes to the project documents, deliverables, or baselines.
  • Track changes: 跟踪变化
    • Identified 已识别
    • Registered 已登记
    • Assessed (huge!) 已评估
    • Approved 已确认
    • Tracked 已跟踪
    • Communicate completion 沟通完成

# Decision Making (Huge!)

  • Voting 投票
  • Autocratic decision making – one person votes for all
    专制决策 —— 一人投票赞成
  • Multicriteria decision analysis: the use of a decision matrix to provide an analytical approach to selecting a correct option. (See next slide.)
    多准则决策分析:使用决策矩阵为选择正确选项提供一种分析方法。 (请参阅下一张幻灯片。)

This is an example of “multicriteria decision making”

# Close project of phase 结束阶段项目

(p. 121)

This is boring and tedious 这很无聊又乏味
But, it can save you a lot of time and money years down the line if you do it right

“…is the process of finalizing all activities for the project, phase, or contract. ”

“project and phase information is archived, and the planned work is completed, and the organizational team resources are released to pursue (other projects).”

# Important (p.123)

  • All documents should be up-to-date with all issues resolved
  • Formal acceptance (especially lean waivers)
  • All costs are to be charged to the project
  • Close project accounts
  • Re-assign personnel
  • Deal with excess material and scrap
  • Clean up any environmental mess
  • Relocate project facilities, equipment, and other resources

# More activities (p.123)

  • Confirm formal acceptance of work product (huge!)
  • Update records to indicate final results
  • Archive project information (very hard to do)

# Questions

# Turn a group of diverse strangers into a team


Amy Edmondson: How to turn a group of strangers into a team | TED Talk

# BIO:

(WIKIPEDIA) Amy C. Edmondson is a Professor of Leadership and Management at the Harvard Business School, who studies human interactions that lead to the creation of successful enterprises that contribute to the betterment of society. She has been recognized by the biannual Thinkers50 global ranking of management thinkers in 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2017. She studies teaming, psychological safety, and leadership. Her articles have been published numerous academic and management outlets, including Harvard Business Review, Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Journal and California Management Review.

艾米・C・埃德蒙森(Amy C. Edmondson)是哈佛商学院的领导力和管理学教授,她研究人与人之间的互动,这些互动促使人们创建成功的企业,从而为改善社会做出贡献。在 2011、2013、2015 和 2017 年,她被管理思想家每半年两次的《Thinkers50》全球排名所认可。她研究团队合作,心理安全和领导力。她的文章已在许多学术和管理领域发表,包括《哈佛商业评论》,《行政科学季刊》,《管理学院学报》和《加利福尼亚管理评论》

# Background for this TED Talk:

Teaming is “coordinating and collaborating with people across boundaries of all kinds -- expertise, distance, time zone … to get work done.”
团队合作是 “与跨越各种边界的人员进行协调和协作 - 专业知识,距离,时区…… 以完成工作。”

The Issue: “With 24/7 global fast-paced operations, crazy shifting schedules and ever-narrower expertise, more and more of us have to work with different people (specialties, cultures, languages, etc.) all the time to get our work done. We (no longer) have the luxury of stable teams.”
问题是:“随着全球 24/7 全天候快节奏的运营,疯狂的日程安排和越来越狭窄的专业知识,我们越来越多的人不得不一直与不同的人(专业,文化,语言等)合作,以获取我们的完成工作。我们(不再)拥有稳定的团队。”

Background for question number 6:
问题 6 的背景:

When problem solving, a huge barrier to success is something called “paralysis by analysis.” The translation for these few words is that given a problem or an issue, there are times when a human, or a team of humans, will spend a vast amount of time examining the problem, and never accomplishing anything (except for further analysis). A great value of PDCA removes the expectation of being 100% right on the first attempt. This means the team has the chance of putting out at least a partial solution for a problem fast, the ability to learn from a partial solution, and the upfront expectation with stakeholders that the team’s effort to solve a particular problem will be a learning event (rather than a perfect fix on the first attempt).
解决问题时,成功的巨大障碍是所谓的 “分析瘫痪”。这几个词的翻译是,给定一个问题或一个问题,有时一个人或一组人将花费大量时间检查问题,而从不完成任何事情(除非进行进一步分析)。 PDCA 的巨大价值消除了初次尝试时 100%正确的期望。这意味着团队有机会快速提出问题的至少部分解决方案,有能力从部分解决方案中学习,以及与利益相关者的共同期望,即团队为解决特定问题所做的努力将是一次学习活动(而不是第一次尝试的完美解决方案)。

# Questions for based on the video:

  1. How are the teams she described similar to IT Project Teams in industry today?
    她描述的团队与当今行业的 IT 项目团队有何相似之处?

    So what's "teaming"? Teaming is teamwork on the fly. It's coordinating and collaborating with people across boundaries of all kinds -- expertise, distance, time zone, you name it -- to get work done.
    那么什么是 “团队合作”? 团队合作是快速的团队合作。 它是与 跨各种边界的 人员进行协调和协作 - 专长,距离,时区,您可以将其命名 - 以完成工作。
    Sports teams embody the definition of a team, the formal definition. It's a stable, bounded, reasonably small group of people who are interdependent in achieving a shared outcome.
    运动队体现了团队的定义, 即正式的定义。 这是一群稳定,有界,相当小的人 ,他们相互依存以实现共同的目标。
    You have to get different expertise at different times, you don't have fixed roles, you don't have fixed deliverables, you're going to be doing a lot of things that have never been done before, and you can't do it in a stable team.
    您必须在不同的时间获得不同的专业知识, 没有固定的角色,没有固定的可交付成果, 您将要做许多以前从未做过的事情, 并且您无法做在一个稳定的团队中。

  2. What are the key learnings from this video that you can use in strengthening a heterogeneous (highly diverse) project team?

    When teaming works, you can be sure that some leaders, leaders at all levels, have been crystal clear that they don't have the answers. Let's call this "situational humility."
    我想说一句话,这是领导才能,但是让我更具体一些。 在进行团队合作时, 您可以确定某些领导者,各个级别的领导者都明确表示他们没有答案。 我们称其为 “情境谦卑”。
    We don't know how to do it. You can be sure, as I said before, people were very curious, and this situational humility combined with curiosity creates a sense of psychological safety that allows you take risks with strangers, because let's face it: it's hard to speak up, right? It's hard to ask for help.
    谦虚是适当的。 我们不知道该怎么做。 您可以肯定,就像我之前说的那样,人们非常好奇, 这种处境谦卑 加上好奇心 会产生一种心理上的安全感 ,让您与陌生人一起冒险, 因为让我们面对 现实吧:很难说出来,对吗?很难寻求帮助。
    It's hard to offer an idea that might be a stupid idea if you don't know people very well. You need psychological safety to do that. They overcame what I like to call the basic human challenge: it's hard to learn if you already know. And unfortunately, we're hardwired to think we know. And so we've got to remind ourselves -- and we can do it -- to be curious; to be curious about what others bring. And that curiosity can also spawn a kind of generosity of interpretation.
    如果您不太了解别人 ,很难提出一个可能是愚蠢的主意的想法。您需要心理安全才能做到这一点。 他们克服了我所说的基本人类挑战: 如果您已经知道,则很难学习。 不幸的是,我们很难认为我们知道。 因此,我们必须提醒自己 - 并且我们可以做到 - 保持好奇心; 对别人带来的东西感到好奇。 好奇心也可以产生一种慷慨的解释。
    Abraham Lincoln said once, "I don't like that man very much. I must get to know him better." Think about that -- I don't like him, that means I don't know him well enough. It's extraordinary. This is the mindset, I have to say, this is the mindset you need for effective teaming.
    亚伯拉罕・林肯曾经说过: “我不太喜欢那个人。我必须加深对他的了解。” 考虑一下 - 我不喜欢他,这意味着我不太了解他。 非常了不起 我必须说, 这是心态 ,这是有效组队所需的心态。
    To get there, I think there's no better advice than this: look to your left, look to your right. How quickly can you find the unique talents, skills and hopes of your neighbor, and how quickly, in turn, can you convey what you bring? Because for us to team up to build the future we know we can create that none of us can do alone, that's the mindset we need.
    为了达到这个目标, 我认为没有比这更好的建议了: 向左看,向右看。 你能多快地找到你的邻居 所拥有的独特才华、 技能和愿景, 又能多快地传达出 你想要传递的信息? 因为对于我们来说,为了建立一个 我们知道可以通过集体, 而非个人所能创造的未来, 这就是我们需要的心态。

  3. At an individual level, do you have any experiences in being a member, or leader, of a heterogeneous team? If the team was successful, what contributed to this?

  4. If a team leader says I don’t have the answer, how do they maintain respect; or what else should they say?

  5. For one of these diverse teams, that is expected to make significant contributions, what environment do leaders need to establish for their team members?

  6. While I was watching this video, I thought of a few Scrum ideas; fail fast and iterative development. Also, there is a topic in process improvement called Plan, Do, Check, Act/Adjust (for an excellent discussion on PDCA, I highly recommend you go to: Plan - Do - Check - Adjust/Act (PDCA) Cycle in Lean-Agile. Also a key point of PDCA is after you finish the “A” part you go right back to “P”). Do you see the same similarities between what the successful rescuers did and these concepts as I do?
    在观看此视频时,我想到了一些混乱的想法;快速迭代失败。此外,过程改进中还有一个主题,称为计划,执行,检查,操作 / 调整。另外,PDCA 的关键是完成 “A” 部分后,您将立即回到 “P”。您是否像我一样看到成功的援救者所做的与这些概念相同的相似之处?

# Quiz

  1. Integration management is: the processes and activities to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate” various Project Management activities.”

    集成管理是识别,定义,组合,统一和协调 “各种项目管理活动” 的过程和活动。

  2. Develop risk management is: the process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organization resources to project activities.”

    The definition is for Develop project charter

  3. If you are a small company, with only 1 project to consider, and the NPV of that project is +10,000.

    • do the project
    • don’t do the project

    如果您是一家小型公司,只考虑一个项目,那么该项目的 NPV 为 + 10,000。

  4. Gathering data for requirements can include:

    • Brain Storming 头脑风暴
    • Focus groups 专门小组
    • Interviews 面谈
    • Design Thinking 设计思维


  5. Brainstorming is the idea that when many people meet, and share ideas, that better ideas, and maybe unique ideas, can be generated.